"Ph" is most frequently used in words the come indigenous Greek, prefer "philosophy". The Greek letter that renders the "F" sound is "phi", written favor φ.
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As for "Gh", many of the indigenous containing it come native German and old English. It was pronounced then as "ch" is in German this particular day - together a rasp in the back of the throat, like the "ch" in "Loch Ness". Nobody really knows why, but roughly the very same time that vowels shifted and English spubraintv-jp.coming to be regularized, the "gh" sound was eliminated from English entirely. In some cases, that was simply made silent (knight, sigh), and also in part others it adjusted into a lot of various sounds. Now it"s simply one that the exceptions learner - both foreign and native - need to live with.
This has to do with traditional spubraintv-jp.coming that can mirror, or effort to mirror, the spubraintv-jp.coming used by the language words was borrowed from ("ph" is, in the vast majority of cases, indicates Greek origin coupled through Latin abuse and, sometimes, the Norman French distribution service);
or, need to the word it is in Anglo-Saxon to start with, the initial pronunciation plays a large role. -gh- stands for the hard "h" provided in part Germanic language (for instance, that is the last sound in the surname Heinrich). The hard "h" visited where the woodbine twines century ago, but the spubraintv-jp.coming persists, and also we"re wake up to adjust it since it"s dear to us.
The explanations over are correct; however, i would choose to add that several of the spubraintv-jp.comings such together the "gh" in words choose "night" occur since of obsolete letter in English now. If ns recall, the letter yogh was offered in this situation and others v "gh", however that letter is currently obsolete. It did look favor the letter "g" today, so when the printing push came out, they replaced it with "g".
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