The answers have the right to probably just be uncovered through historical sources and methods,
First, the answer to your second question.
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The existing calendar that most of the western world uses is Gregorian Calendar1, i beg your pardon is an innovation over Julian Calendar, i m sorry itself to be an improvement over timeless Roman Calendar.
Now, on to the first question.
Generally months with 31 and 30 days come in alternate fashion except for July and also August which are consecutive. For this reason why perform they both have actually 31 days?
To price this, we need to first look into the background of roman inn Calendar. The first roman calendar meeting to legendary Romulus had actually 10 months, and also it started from Martius, i.e. The month we call March. And also that can still be seen in the modern-day calendar today. September, October, November, and also December room 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th months respectively, yet Sept comes from Latin for 7, Oct is for 8, and so on.
After that, there were a couple of (minor) adjustments to the roman inn Calendar prior to the arrival of Julian Calendar. At the time, there were 12 months, through Iunarius and also Februarius, new months included before Martius. And yet, an ordinary year had 355 days, however, a tropic solar year, i.e. The duration of Earth"s transformation around the Sun, is around 365.25 days. Therefore, before this time, Romans supplied to add a month referred to as Mensis Intercalaris that 27/28-days in between Februarius and Martius come balance this. (the comprehensive scheme deserve to be viewed in the wikipedia short article on Julian Calendar).
To adjust this, the calendar was considerably overhauled under the reign of Julius Caesar. One of the consequences of this reform was Quintilis (Quint - 5; so now the 7th month), which already had 31 days, maintained 31 days; and Sextilis (Sex - 6; so now the 8th month), which previously had 29 days, got a boost of 2 days and also now had actually 31 days.If one is curious, the net change was January (Iunarius), Sextilis (August), and December acquired 2 days each, vice versa, Aprilis (April), Iunius (June), September, and November gained 1 job each.
Now for the surname of this months. After ~ the fatality of Julius Caesar, Quintilis to be renamed come Julius in his honor, i beg your pardon is the origin of July. Similarly, Sextilis was renamed come Augustus in the respect of climate reigning emperor Augustus.
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Interestingly, subsequent kings Tiberius, Caligula, Domitian and also Commodus (unsuccessfully) tried to rename September after ~ themselves, but failed.
1 Technically, present calendar - the UTC is a further modification of Gregorian Calendar, since a Leap 2nd is periodically added, to save the time of work close to average solar time. Yet for all practical purposes, it"s not substantially different indigenous Gregorian Calendar.