Parallel structure, or parallelism, means using the same pattern of native to display that 2 or an ext words or ideas are of equal importance. Words and phrases within a sentence must not only enhance in structure, but likewise in tense. Writers usage parallel structure to add clarity to your writing, make it easier to understand and also show the their composing is structurally and also grammatically correct. Discover parallel structure instances to far better understand the concept.



The problematic locations are italicized below.

Ashley likes to ski, to swim and jump. (There requirements to it is in a "to" between "and" and "jump," to be parallel v the other items. )She likes dancing and also to sing songs. (This should pair "to dance" with "to sing" therefore the infinitive type is used throughout the sentence.)

Parallel structure With -ing Endings

Be consistent and also use parallel framework with words that finish in -ing.


The bolder words indicate that parallel building is used correctly.

Joe likes running, walking and being active.We enjoy relaxing and also sitting out in the sun.

You are watching: Which sentence contains parallel elements?


The native that should be parallel however aren"t are presented in italics here.

Joe likes running, walking and also outdoor activities. ("Running" and also "walking" space parallel through each other, however "outdoor activities" is no parallel. Use "participating in outdoor activities" or similar.)We reap relaxing and also like come sit out in the sun. (The italicized phrases space not parallel; they need to both encompass verbs that finish in -ing.)


The interlocutor terms highlight parallel construction between the clauses.

The teacher told castle that they need to study and that they must practice their words every night. My parents stated get a good education and do not settle for less.


In this, the clauses carry out not illustrate parallel construction. The trouble wording is highlighted.

The teacher told lock to research and that they need to practice their words every night. (This sentence need to either encompass "that they" in both clauses, choose the correct example above, or the should encompass the native "said" in between "that" and also "they.")My parents stated to obtain a an excellent education and not clear up for less. (Here, the word "to" have to be included prior to "not" in the italicized text.)

Parallel framework in Lists through Colons

When you have actually items on a list adhering to a colon, the items should all it is in in the same type in stimulate to protect against a parallel structure error.


Wording that suggests parallel construction in these is bold.

The following activities can be done at the mall: buying groceries, eating lunch and paying bills.In her bedroom, girlfriend will find the following: a bed, a closet and also a desk.


The problematic wording in these instances is emphasize in italics.

The following tasks can be done at the mall: buying groceries, eating lunch and bill payment. ("Bill payment" must be composed as "paying bills" in bespeak to display parallel construction.)In her bedroom, friend will uncover the following: a bed, a closet and, sitting at a desk. (You shouldn"t list two nouns through an task in this type of list. It could read, "a bed, a closet, and also a desk if that is what the writer means. If the writer desires to explain someone sitting at a desk, that should be part of a new sentence. )

Parallel framework in various other Lists

Even as soon as a colon isn"t offered to present a list, parallel construction is important.


The state that type parallel framework in these sentences are bold.

Mary wanted to make certain that she made her presentation creatively, effectively and also persuasively.Tim was taken into consideration to it is in a good employee since he to be always ~ above time, he was an extremely motivated and he was a good leader.


Parallel constructor errors space italicized.

Mary want to make certain she made she presentation creatively, effectively and persuaded others.

See more: What Does The Name Kiara Mean Ing, Origin, Popularity, What Does The Name Kiara Mean

("Persuaded others" is no parallel v the other list items.)Tim was considered to it is in a great employee due to the fact that he was constantly on time, he was very motivated and also led the team well. ("Led the team well" is not parallel with the other list items.)

Parallel framework in Verb Tense

Keep in mind the parallel structure must be used when it involves verb tense. Your verb tenses should constantly match.


The bold words in these instances are all past tense, which method they are of parallel construction.

She wrote a letter and also mailed it to the school.Yesterday us watched a movie, played video games and made pizza.


The below mix tenses. The problematic wording is italicized.

She writes a letter and also mailed it to the school. (This mixes present and also past tense; both words need to be the same tense.)Yesterday us watched a movie, play video games and made pizza. ("Watched" and also "made" are past tense, but "play" is current tense. It have to be "played" due to the fact that the sentence mentions this took place in the past.)

The prestige of Parallel Structure

Parallel structure provides flow in a sentence. That keeps your writing balanced and makes it much easier to read. It likewise shows that concepts are of equal importance. Errors in parallel structure can make your writing sound strange to listeners. Countless tests, consisting of the SAT, will need you to determine parallel structure errors as a way of trial and error your writing abilities. Come further broaden your knowledge about parallel structure in writing, testimonial these of parallelism in literature and rhetoric.