Author: Alexandra Osika•Reviewer: Francesca Salvador MScLast reviewed: October 10, 2021Reading time: 26 minutes


The hip muscles encompass numerous muscles that the hip and thigh who main duty is to act on the thigh in ~ the i know good joint and also stabilize the pelvis. Without them, walking would be impossible. They can be split into three key groups:

Iliopsoas groupHip adductors

This post will introduce the muscles in every group and also touch on your origin, insertion, function, and innervation.

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Key facts around hip muscles
Iliopsoas groupMuscles: iliacus, psoas major, and psoas minorMain function: flexion of the trunk and also thigh, lateral flexion of the trunk (excluding psoas major and minor only)Innervation: anterior rami of spinal nerves L1-L3 and femoral nerve (L2-L4) (iliacus only)
Gluteal muscles (superficial)Muscles: gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and also tensor fasciae lataeMain function: varied – extension, external and internal rotation, abduction and adduction the the thighInnervation: remarkable (L4, S1) and also inferior (L5-S2) gluteal nerves
Gluteal muscles(deep)Muscles: piriformis, gemellus superior, obturator internus, gemellus inferior, obturator externus, and quadratus femorisMain function: external rotation and abduction that the thigh; stabilizes head of femurInnervation: varied – nerve come piriformis (S1-S2), nerve come obturator internus (L5-S2), nerve come quadratus femoris (L4-S1), obturator nerve (L3-L4)
Hip adductorsMuscles: Gracilis, pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and adductor minimusMain function: Adduction the the thigh in ~ the i know well jointInnervation: Obturator nerve (L2-L4) and femoral nerve (L2-L3) (pectineus only)
Clinical pointsFemoral triangle

Overview diagram

as you have the right to see, there are many hip muscles. Begin by learning to identify the muscles of the hip and thigh v this study unit.

muscles of the hip and also thigh discover study unit

Iliopsoas group

The iliopsoas group of muscle coins its surname from the muscles that make it up: iliacus, psoas major, and psoas minor. Castle lie in the iliopsoas compartment in the posterior abdomen together with the lumbar plexus. The iliopsoas muscles originate from the posterior abdominal wall and insert at the lesser trochanter of the femur.

every iliopsoas team muscles overcome the hip joint and share the very same functions:

Flexion that the trunk and thigh exterior rotation that the thigh

In addition, the psoas significant and psoas young laterally flex the trunk.

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Iliacus is a big triangular shame muscle the lies over the surface ar of the ilium, lateral come the lower part of the psoas significant and psoas minor muscles. Its fibers merge through fibers the the psoas significant muscle roughly the level of the inguinal ligament to come to be the iliopsoas muscle – the key flexor the the thigh. Iliacus obtain its innervation indigenous the femoral nerve (L2-L4) and also functions to flex the trunk and also hip and also externally revolve the thigh.

an essential facts about the iliacus muscle
origin Iliac fossa
Insertion Lesser trochanter the femur
Innervation Femoral nerve (L2-L4)
function Hip joint: Thigh/trunk flexion, Thigh outside rotation

Psoas major