Characterization, the art of revealing fictitious characters’ natures and also personalities, has many facets.There room two main ways to disclose characters: straight characterization, and also indirect characterization. What specifies these 2 characterization types, and what room the strengths and weaknesses of each? review on for tips and examples from literature:

What room direct and also indirect characterization?

‘Direct characterization’ method the character details authors explicitly describe.

You are watching: Which of the following is an example of direct characterization

because that example, telling the reader a character’s desires, life ideology or present emotional state explicitly.

Example of straight characterization

Here’s an example of direct characterization from Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse (1927). Woolf explicitly shows what personalities think the one another. For example, one artist staying with the Ramsay family, Lily Briscoe, thinks around a man Mr. Bankes who has called Mr Ramsay a hypocrite:

‘Looking up, there he was – Mr. Ramsay – proceeding towards them, swinging, careless, oblivious, remote. A bit of a hypocrite? she repeated. Five no – the many sincere of men, the truest (here that was), the best; but, spring down, she thought, he is soaked up in himself, the is tyrannical, the is unjust…’ (p. 52).

This is straight – Woolf describes Mr. Ramsay’s traits straight – his self-absorption and so forth.

In contrast to direct characterization, ‘indirect characterization’ shows readers your characters’ characteristics without explicitly describing them. What varieties of indirect characterization room there? any type of writing that helps united state infer or deduce things around a person’s personality. Because that example:

Dialogue – (where a character’s bossy, kind, mean, or other features come through)Actions – what a personality does (for instance jumping ~ above a beetle come squash it) reveals, incidentally, your character (in this situation that a personality is needlessly unkind or violent)Description– return associations differ from nation to country, culture to culture, exactly how a personality looks frequently gives indirect characterization. We can assume, for example, a pale-skinned character is antisocial and also hides away from the sun, favor the recluse Boo Radley inTo kill a Mockingbird

Example the indirect characterization

Here, john Steinbeck inThe Grapes that Wrath mirrors a character’s personality indirectly. He doesn’t say the hitchhiker Joad is a down-and-out, blue-collar worker. Instead, the indirect characterization provides the props a worker in the paper definition would have – whiskey, cigarettes, calloused hand – to present Joad’s character.

‘Joad took a quick drink native the flask. The dragged the last smoke from his raveling cigarette and also then, through callused thumb and forefinger, crushed out the glowing end. He rubbed the butt to a pulp and also put it the end the window, letting the breeze suck the from his fingers.’ (The Grapes of Wrath, p. 9)

So how do you use direct and also indirect characterization well? review tips because that each:

Using direct characterization: 4 tips

Don’t overdo itUse direct characterization for key character detailsUse direct characterization pertinent to arcsFocus on the unique and also specific

Don’t overdo it

Direct characterization is convenient. You can provide readers information about your characters quickly, in a solitary phrase or sentence. Because that example, this direct character summary of mr Bounderby in Charles Dickens’ Hard Times(1854):

‘So, mr Bounderby threw top top his cap – he always threw that on, as expressing a male who had been far too busily to work in making himself, come acquire any kind of fashion of put on his hat.’ (p. 26)

In Dickens’ novel, affluent Mr Bounderby constantly tells others about his impoverished background and also what a self-made male he is. This direct characterization (his theatrically indifferent way of cram on his hat) suggests his haste, his being ‘a busy man with crucial things to do’. Its thus fits his persona and backstory.

Keep straight characterization, as much as possible, to concise info relevantto her story. Mix direct and also indirect characterization to build your characters. Too much explicittelling about your characters’ personalities, at the cost of showing, could make them feel favor bland collections of abstract nouns there is no specificity. For example, below is negative direct characterization:

‘He to be a hopeless man, a mix that dejected self-pity and also self-loathing, fear being the main cause of his state.’

This doesn’t offer us specifics: how does he look, due to the fact that of these qualities? What is that this guy fears?


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Use straight characterization for an essential character details

When introducing personalities for the very first time particularly, use straight characterization to provide readers essential details. It’s much easier to remember just states facts, e.g. ‘She to be a type woman.’ Consider, because that example, our very first introduction come the character called ‘Mother’s Younger Brother’ (we’ll abbreviation ‘MYB’) in E.L. Doctorow’s classic novel Ragtime (1975):

‘Down in ~ the bottom the the hill Mother’s Younger brother boarded the streetcar and rode come the finish of the line. He was a lonely, withdrawn young guy with blond moustaches, and also was thought to be having difficulty finding himself.’ (p. 4)

Doctorow uses direct characterization to show MYB’s melancholic nature. Together we review on, we discover MYBis in love v a well known chorus girl, Evelyn Nesbit. Doctorow passes right into indirect characterization, describingthe posters of Evelyn top top the wall surface in MYB’s bedroom and also his stalking of her to highlight the degree of his obsessive nature.

This activity – indigenous simple, direct characterization to wider character details offered indirectly – create a sense of personality development. The direct characterization – MYB’s loneliness – is additionally relevant to his wider arc. Due to the fact that he ultimately has a short (but unsatisfying fling) with Evelyn.

Use straight characterization pertinent to arcs

Effective direct characterization help us photo characters’ appearances and also know their primary goals, drives, and motivations. Part physical description is important, particularly on very first introduction. However the finest physical description often tells us something around the character’s personality, too. And also even web links to your story arc, together MYB’s ‘lonely’ nature in Ragtimedoes.

Take one more description indigenous Steinbeck’sThe Grapes that Wrath:

‘He was no over thirty. His eyes were an extremely dark brown and there to be a hint of brown pigment in his eyeballs. His cheek-bones to be high and also wide, and solid deep lines cut down his cheeks, in curves besides his mouth <…> His hands to be hard, with large fingers and also nails together thick and ridges as little clam shells. The space between thumb and forefinger and also the hams that his hands were shiny v callus.’ (p. 3)

The description of Tom Joad is fitting. We see exactly how lined his confront is because that a guy entering his thirties, and the calluses ~ above his finger attest to a life of hard work. His age appearance makes an ext sense as soon as we later uncover Tom’s just been exit from prison.

Focus on the unique and specific

Often, as beginning authors, we write character descriptions that end at ‘she had blue eyes and long brown hair’. However eye and hair colour doesn’t tell us what this certain character has that nobody else does. Instead, emphasis on specifics. For example, read how Margaret Atwood defines childhood friends (or ‘frenemies’) in she novelCat’s Eye(1988). The protagonist Elaine is remembering she youth with a flashback, in the existing tense:

‘We wear long wool coats v tie belts, the collars turned up to look choose those of movie stars, and rubber boots with the tops folded down and also men’s job-related socks inside.’ (p. 4)

This little bit that direct garments description mirrors us preteen girls that are learning their independence. Atwood supplies these particular details to convey a solid sense of this age, as the girl become more independent and try appear an ext ‘grown up.’ these details do the characters’ period believable.

To write an excellent direct characterization, explain details together as:

Clothing – what does that say around your character? Is their apparel sober, funky, revealing?Identity – does her character identify with a particular subculture (e.g. Punk)? What does this say around them?Personality – is your character mostly cheerful, sarcastic, melancholic? There’s no harm in the occasional abstract noun. Just make certain to display this top quality through events, dialogue and other indirect way too
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Using indirect characterization: 4 tips

Add dialogue because that indirect characterizationShow characters’ plot to explain their personalityUse indirect characterization to present consequencesUse emotive language to build character in philosophy narration

Add dialogue for indirect characterization

Great dialogue tells reader a lot around your characters. That a helpful tool for producing subtle however revealing indirect characterization. It’s truly precious reading good play scripts because that this reason, provided that phase works are mostly dialogue based. Consider, because that example, this exchange in A StreetcarNamed Desire (1947)by Tennessee Williams:

‘Stanley :Hey, there! Stella, Baby!Stella :Don’t holler in ~ me like that. Hi, Mitch.Stanley:Catch!Stella:What?Stanley:Meat!Stella :Stanley! Where are you going?Stanley:Bowling!’ (p.1)

Williams go not should tell united state that Stanley is no a big talker and is a turbulent type. Indirect characterization here does the for him.

This very first exchange between Stanley and Stella shows (in his short, barked answers) that he is a male of couple of words and also some aggression. The reality Stella engages in pleasantries with Stanley’s girlfriend (‘Hi, Mitch’) create stark contrast to Stanley’s restricted focus: Meat and going bowling. Even though the phase direction claims thecharacters should appear from different backgrounds, the indirect characterization in Williams’ dialogue already shows us exactly how starkly different they are.

Show characters’ actions to define their personality

Although Tennessee Williams could have a narrator at the begin of his play saying ‘Stanley is one aggressive masculine chauvinist’, it would be odd. That would also pre-determine just how we check out him. Half the delight of reading is finding out the characters. There’s more excitement and intrigue in learning around characters through degrees.

In Zora Neale Hurston’s novel Their eye Were watching God (1937), the character Janie’s grandmother, Nanny, is passionate for she to marry a wealthy male Logan Killicks. Through small actions, Hurston shows very first Janie’s uncertainty about marrying a man she right knows, and also then her discovery that ‘marriage did not make love’ that we’re told directly at the end of the chapter. Prior to this realization, us see tiny signs v indirect characterization. Because that example, when she goes to visit Nanny after obtaining married:

‘Janie didn’t go in where Mrs Washburn was. She didn’t to speak anything to complement up with Nanny’s gladness either. She just dropped on a chair v her hips and also sat there.’ (p. 29)

This passive ‘just sitting there’ suggests Janie’s despondent feelings.A construct up of pictures of waiting and also stasis explain Janie indirectly. They expose her steady realization that she doesn’t love Killicks. Here, indirect characterization details develop up to a significant character development. The characterization describes the approaching readjust in Janie’s path.


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Use indirect characterization to present consequences

One method of thinking of straight characterization vs indirect characterization is come think of cause and also effect. Because that example, the direct characterization of Mother’s Younger brothers in Ragtime (he is ‘lonely’) leads to the longer arc that his plot (stalking a famous chorus girl).

Similarly, as soon as we very first meet the cheat Mr. Bounderby in Charles Dickens’ Hard Times, Dickens reflects as directly how exaggerated everything Bounderbysays and does is. With indirect characterization, with Bounderby’s accumulated words and also actions, us understandthe the reasons underlying hispompous behaviour.

Use emotive language to construct character in approach narration

Everything from personality dialogue and actions to the indigenous you pick to explain settings deserve to deepen characterization. For example, 2 different characters could describe the exact same setting totally differently. The means each explains this setting would reveal key differences about them.

For example, imagine 2 siblings, John and Sarah, decide to investigatea mysterious abandoned home on their street.

John is afraid. The believes in supernatural forces. The sees the house as ominous and mysterious:

‘As I strategy the home I see a shadow move quickly throughout an upstairs window. Ns dash earlier to the gate and look up, squinting into the glare. All I check out is the reflection of the sinewy oak in a corner of the weedy, unkempt garden.’

The reality John is checking the home windows for movement, the truth he dashes back to the gate – this indirect characterization details show that eerie goings on are on his mind. They expose he has actually a fearful nature, without clearly saying so. Compare to Sarah’s visit:

‘It doesn’t watch haunted to me. Civilization say you deserve to see figures moving around upstairs as soon as dusk arrives, but any idiot deserve to see it’s simply the enjoy of the oak tree in the garden, if there’s a breeze.’

Sarah’s observations display us the character isn’t in ~ the mercy that her creativity like John. We get a sense of an live independence character who won’t be swayed by famous opinion (‘people say’). The terse ‘any idiot’ indirectly shows Sarah’s character. She comes throughout as matter-of-fact, and maybe also a small closed-minded and also judgmental.

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