Femur (The Thigh)

The femur—the bone of the upper leg—is the longest bone in the human being body and one the the strongest.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe femur is the longest bone in the person skeleton.It functions in supporting the weight of the human body and allowing motion that the leg.The femur articulates proximally with the acetabulum that the pelvis developing the i know well joint, and also distally with the tibia and also patella to form the knee joint.Key Termscondyle: A smooth importance on a bone wherein it forms a joint with an additional bone.

The femur or thigh bone is uncovered in the upper leg and also is the longest bone in the body. The femur articulates proximally with the acetabulum that the pelvis to kind the hip joint, and also distally v the tibia and patella to kind the knee joint.


Proximally, the femur exhibits four key regions. The femoral head projects medially and also superiorly and articulates through the acetabulum the the pelvis to type the i know well joint. Instantly lateral come the head is the neck that connects the head with the shaft. It is narrower 보다 the head to permit a greater variety of movement at the hip joint.

Located superiorly top top the key shaft, lateral to the joining of the neck, the better trochanter is a forecast to i beg your pardon the abductor and also lateral rotator muscle of the foot attach.

Also situated on the key shaft, yet inferiorly to the neck joint, is the lesser trochanter. A much smaller estimate than the greater trochanter, the psoas major and iliacus muscles attach here.


The shaft descends in a slightly medial direction the is designed to bring the knees closer to the body’s center of gravity, boosting stability. Because of the widening that the female pelvis this edge is greater in women and can command to enhanced knee instability.

Two crucial features the the obelisk are the proximal gluteal tuberosity come which the gluteus maximus attaches, and also the distal adductor tubercle come which the adductor magnus attaches.


Distally, the femur exhibits five key regions. 2 rounded regions, termed the medial and also lateral condyles, articulate v the tibia in ~ the many anterior projection of the patella.

Between the 2 condyles lies the intercondylar fossa, a depression in which vital knee ligaments attach; this considerably strengthens the knee joint and protects it against torsional damage.

Finally, the 2 epicondyles, the medial and lateral, lie immediately proximal to the condyles; castle are additionally regions where an essential internal knee ligaments attach.

Patella (The Knee)

The patella (knee cap) is the bone between the fibula and also femur.

Learning Objectives

Identify the objective of the patella

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe primary attributes of the patella room to boost leg extension and protect the joint of the knee.The patella is a bone installed within a tendon. This way it is a sesamoid bone.Key Termspatella: A sesamoid bone discovered in the knee, generally known as the knee cap.sesamoid: A bone installed within a tendon.

The patella or knee cap is the bone between the fibula and femur. Each leg has actually a patella to defend its knee joint. The patella serves 2 functions:

To defend the knee from physical trauma.To improve the leverage the the quadriceps tendon can exert on the femur, thereby increasing muscle efficiency.

The apex of the patella faces inferiorly and connects to the tibia tuberosity through the patella ligament the attaches to the anterior surface. The base of the patella faces superiorly and is the attachment allude for the quadriceps tendon.

The posterior surface of the patella includes the medial and lateral facets the articulate through the condyles of the femur. The lower posterior region of the patella has vascular canaliculi, tiny channels in ~ the bone, which type the infrapatellar fat pad.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe tibia is much more commonly dubbed the shinbone. That is located in between the ankle and also the patella.The fibula is a long, slim bone likewise located in between the ankle and also the patella. It operation parallel come the tibia.Like the femur, the tibia bears much of the body’s weight and also plays critical role in movement and also locomotion. The fibula, in addition to the tibia and the tarsals, creates the ankle.Key Termstibia: The inner and also usually the bigger of the two bones that the lower leg.fibula: The smaller sized of the two bones in the reduced leg, the calf bone.

The tibia and also fibula are the 2 bones of the lower leg. The tibia is situated medially come the fibula and also is lot larger. Both space bound along with the interosseous membrane.

The Tibia

The tibia, or shin bone, spans the lower leg, articulating proximally v the femur and also patella at the knee joint, and distally v the tarsal bones, to kind the fishing eye joint. The is the significant weight-bearing bone of the lower leg.

Proximally, there space five crucial features of the tibia:

It widens and forms 2 condyles —the lateral and medial—that articulate with the condyles the the femur.Between the two condyles is the intercondylar fossa, a little grove, into which 2 intercondylar tubercles sit. Many internal ligaments of the knee joint affix to these tubercles and also strengthen that significantly.On the anterior surface ar of the proximal region and inferiorly to the condyles is the tibial tuberosity come which the patella ligament attaches.The pillar of the tibia is triangular and the soleus muscle, which offers the calf its characteristic shape, originates top top the posterior surface.Distally, the tibia also widens to help with weight bearing and it screens two an essential features. The medial malleolus is a bony projection that articulates v the tarsal skeletal to kind the fishing eye joint. Laterally, over there is the fibular notch that articulates through the fibula.

The Fibula

The fibula also spans the lower leg, return proximally the does no articulate through the femur or patella. That serves more as one attachment point for muscles rather than a weight-bearing bone.

Proximally, the fibula head articulates through the lateral condyle of the tibia, and the biceps femoris attaches to the fibula head. Similar to the tibia, the tower of the fibula is triangular and also numerus muscle are involved in the extension and flexion that the foot. This muscles originate native the fibula’s surface and also include the extensor digitorum longus, soleus, and flexor hallucis longus, amongst others.

Distally, the fibula forms the lateral malleolus, which is more prominent 보다 the medial malleolus that the tibia. It likewise articulates through the tarsal bones to kind the ankle joint.

Tarsals, Metatarsals, and also Phalanges (The Foot)

The human being ankle and also foot bones encompass tarsals (ankle), metatarsals (middle bones), and also phalanges (toes).

Learning Objectives

Describe the different types of bones in the foot

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe human being foot contains 26 bones.The foot can be subdivided right into the tarsals, metatarsals, and also phalanges.Key Termsphalange: A bone in ~ the digit.metatarsal: A bone indigenous the facility of the foot the articulates v the tarsals and phalanges.tarsal: A bone forming component of the fishing eye or heel.

The foot contains 26 bones the are divided into 3 regions: the tarsals (or ankle and also heel), the metatarsals (forming the single of the foot), and the phalanges (forming the digits). While sharing a similar underlying structure with the hand, the foot is visibly and structurally different to account because that its greater load-bearing and also locomotive duties, and reduced good movements.


The tarsal bones of the foot are organized into three rows: proximal, intermediate, and distal. The proximal row includes the talus, i beg your pardon is the many superior the the tarsals and also articulates v the tibia and also fibula to kind the ankle joint. The talus is responsible because that transmitting pressures from the tibia to the heel and acts together an attachment suggest for countless ligaments the strengthen the ankle joint.

The calcaneus is the thickest tarsal and forms the hoe of the foot. That articulates with the talus superiorly and anteriorly v the cuboid the the distal group. Posteriorly the calcaneal tuberosity is the attachment point for the Achilles tendon.

The intermediate group includes only the navicular bone, which articulates with every one of the tarsals—with the exemption of the calcaneus. The navicular bone dram a an essential role in preserving the medial longitudinal arch that the foot.

There are 4 distal tarsals: the lateral cuboid and also the three cuneiforms, located medially. The distal tarsals articulate through the metatarsals and additionally maintain the transverse arch that the foot.


The foot contains five metatarsals that are numbered I–V, relocating medial come lateral, big toe to little toe. Every metatarsal is composed of a head, shaft, and also base.

The proximal base articulates through the cuboid bones, and distally with the proximal phalanges, and also each metatarsal likewise articulates laterally with surrounding metatarsals. The interossei that the foot originate native the shafts the the metatarsals.


The number are called in a comparable fashion to the metatarsals, medial come lateral native the large toe. V the exemption of the huge toe, every digit has a proximal, intermediate, and also distal phalange; the large toe lacks an intermediate phalange. The size of the phalanges decreases distally.

Arches that the Feet

The arches of the foot are developed by the tarsal and metatarsal bones; castle dissipate impact forces and also store power for the subsequent step.

Learning Objectives

Differentiate among the arches of the foot

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe arcs of the foot are created by the tarsal and metatarsal bones and also strengthened by ligaments and also tendons. They enable the foot to assistance the load of the body in the erect posture v the least weight.The slim mobility the the arches when load is applied to and removed indigenous the foot renders walking and running an ext economical in terms of energy.The longitudinal arch of the foot deserve to be broken down into several smaller sized arches. The main arcs are the antero- posterior arches, i m sorry may, for descriptive purposes, be regarded as divisible right into two types—a medial and a lateral.The two longitudinal arcs serve as pillars for the transverse arch the runs obliquely across the tarsometatarsal joints.Key Termsarches the the foot: The area of the foot formed by the tarsal and also metatarsal bones and strengthened by ligaments and also tendons. They allow the foot to assistance the weight of the body in the erect posture v the least weight.

Arches of the Foot

Arches that the Foot: Skeleton the foot. Lateral aspect.

The arcs of the foot are developed by the tarsal and metatarsal bones. Strengthened by ligaments and tendons, the elastic nature of arches allow the foot come act together a spring, dissipating affect forces and also storing power to it is in transfered into the succeeding step enhancing locomotion.

The two longitudinal arches and also a transverse arch are maintained by the interlocking shapes of the foot bones, solid ligaments, and pulling muscles throughout activity. The slim mobility that these arcs when load is used to and removed indigenous the foot provides walking and running an ext economical in regards to energy.

Excessive stress, overload on the tendons and also ligaments of the feet can an outcome in fallen arches or level feet.

Longitudinal Arches

The longitudinal arch the the foot can be damaged down into several smaller arches. The main arcs are the antero-posterior arches, i m sorry may, because that descriptive purposes, be related to as divisible into two types—a medial and a lateral.

Medial Arch

Arches the Foot: Skeleton that foot. Medial aspect.

As have the right to be check in a footprint, the medial longitudinal arch curves over the ground. The is make by the calcaneus, the talus, the navicular, the 3 cuneiforms, and also the first, second, and third metatarsals.

Its summit is at the superior articular surface ar of the talus. Its two extremities or piers, ~ above which the rests in standing, room the tuberosity on the plantar surface of the calcaneus posteriorly, and the heads of the first, second, and third metatarsal skeletal anteriorly.

The chief characteristic the this arch is its elasticity, as result of its height and also to the number of small joints in between its component parts. Its weakest component (i.e., the part most responsible to productivity from too lot pressure) is the joint in between the talus and also navicular, yet this section is prepare for the preparation by the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, also called the feather ligament, which is elastic and is therefore able to easily restore the arch come its original problem when the disturbing force is removed.

The ligament is strengthened medially through blending through the deltoid ligament the the fish eye joint, and also is supported inferiorly by the tendon of the tibialis posterior, i beg your pardon is spread out in a fan-shaped insertion and also prevents undue stress of the ligament or such an amount of stretching as would certainly permanently elongate it.

The arch is additional supported by the plantar aponeurosis, through the little muscles in the sole of the foot, through the tendons the the peroneus longus and the tibialis anterior and posterior, and by the ligaments of every the articulations involved.

Lateral Arch

In contrast, the lateral longitudinal arch is an extremely low. The is composed of the calcaneus, the cuboid, and the fourth and fifth metatarsals.

Its summit is at the talocalcaneal articulation, and also its chief joint is the calcaneocuboid, which own a special system for locking and permits only a restricted movement. The most marked features that this arch space its solidity and its slight elevation.

Two strong ligaments—the long plantar and the plantar calcaneocuboid—the extensor tendons, and the short muscles that the tiny toe preserve its integrity.

Fundamental Longitudinal Arch

While this medial and also lateral arches may be readily demonstrated together the ingredient antero-posterior arcs of the foot, the an essential longitudinal arch is added to through both, and consists that the calcaneus, cuboid, third cuneiform, and 3rd metatarsal: all the other bones the the foot may be gotten rid of without destroying this arch.

Transversal Arches

In addition to the longitudinal arches, the foot presents a collection of transverse arches. The arches are finish at the posterior component of the metatarsus and the anterior component of the tarsus, however in the middle of the tarsus lock present an ext of the characteristics of concavities.

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These are directed downward and medially, therefore that when the medial boundaries of the feet are placed in apposition, a finish tarsal dome is formed. The transverse arcs are strengthened by the interosseous, plantar, and dorsal ligaments; by the quick muscles that the very first and fifth toes (especially the transverse head of the adductor hallucis), and also by the peroneus longus, who tendon stretches between the piers that the arches.