Theme: The influence of industry, financial and technological revolution, Medicine, science and the people


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The turn mule was invented by Samuel Crompton in 1779. The revolutionised textile manufacturing by vastly increasing the lot of noodle that might be spun at any one time. But this also meant textile manufacturers no longer needed to pay separation, personal, instance spinners to produce spindles (wooden rods) wound through cotton thread, as simply one operator could now usage the an equipment to spin thousands of spindles at once.

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Samuel Crompton (1753 – 1827) was born in Bolton, Lancashire. Once his dad died, young Samuel aided to boost his family’s earnings by rotate – producing long, solid lengths the thread ready for sewing, web or to be woven into cloth. In ~ this time, rotate was an altering from a ‘cottage industry’, undertaken by families in their very own homes, developing one spool in ~ a time, to gift an significantly mechanised process of mass-production.

In 1764, James Hargreaves invented the ‘spinning Jenny’, which can produce eight spools that yarn in ~ once. A year later, Richard Arkwright presented a spinning framework powered by water and incorporating rollers come compress and also stretch the yarns. Crompton’s rotate mule linked features of the moving carriage of the turn Jenny through the Arkwright frame’s rollers. The maker could not only produce hundreds of spindles that yarn at once, but additionally yarns that different species and qualities.

But prefer many brand-new inventions of the age of Revolution, the rotate mule was so efficient, it intimidated the livelihoods the the professional workers that the head industries. Totality family incomes were lost as a result, leaving people destitute and also hungry, and also contributing to protests choose the Luddite movement, whereby unemployed workers smashed machinery and collection fire come mills and factories.

Crompton did no patent his design. It was soon being created and adjusted by others, and also used top top a huge industrial scale. By 1812, between 4 and also 5 million mule spindles to be in use, however Crompton received no royalties for the innovation which might have do him incredibly wealthy. The values of his style continued to be supplied until the early on 1980s.

Did friend know..?

This device was called a spinning ‘mule’ because it merged features of two machines. A mule is a cross between a horse and also a donkey, and also all three were widely used working animals of the time. A female cheat is referred to as a ‘Jenny’.

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Sources & acknowledgements

This thing description and its related educational resources were researched and also written by our team that historians and education specialists. For more information see the item’s house museum, collection or archive, provided above.