Just as there are rules that grammar in composition,there are rules that graphing that help to visualize data for youraudience. A well-designed graph should not need much explanation becausethe graph itself need to make the trends in the data visually apparent. A well-designed graph likewise doesn"t need any type of unnecessary decoration the doesn"t convey advantageous information, such together depth ~ above bars in a 2-D plot. Each of the complying with terms tote animportant meaning.

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## Dependent and Independent Variables

Imagine the we want to make a graph the the amountof rainfall that occurs at various times the year. Rainfall dependson time that year, yet time of year walk not rely on rainfall.Therefore, rainfall is the dependent variable and time that yearis the independent variable. In part graphs, girlfriend may have actually morethan one dependence variable, but never an ext than one independentvariable. Because that example, you may overlap plots the rainfall in thedesert and rainfall in the tropics against time the year, or you couldgraph inches of rainfall in 2005 and 2006 versus time ofyear.

## The Axes

The independent variable belongs on the x-axis(horizontal line) that the graph and also the dependent variable belongs onthe y-axis (vertical line). The x and also y axes cross at a pointreferred to together the origin, where the works with are (0,0). Ingraphs with only positive worths for x and also y, the beginning is in thelower left corner.

## The Scale

Each axis requirements a range to present the selection of thedata on the axis. The low finish of the scale may be zero or a roundnumber value slightly smaller sized than the the smallest data point. The highend the the range is usually a ring number value slightly larger thanthe largest data point. The range is measured off in major and minortick marks. Frequently the range runs from short to high ineasily count multiples choose 10s, 50s, 100s, etc. As soon as graphs are contrasted side-by-side, think about scaling them come the very same data selection to do comparisons easier.

## The Axis Labels

Each axis requirements a descriptive axis labelindicating which variable is represented. Because that example, the y-axislabel could read "Total Rainfall" and also the x-axis label can read"Month"

## The Units

If you are measuring time, you must incorporate theunits as well as the numeric worths so civilization will recognize if friend aretalking about seconds, minutes, hours, days, years, etc. If girlfriend aremeasuring rainfall, world won"t understand if you median inches,millimeters, gallons, etc. Unless you incorporate the units. Devices shouldbe reported following the axis label, together in "Total Rainfall(inches)."

## The Data Points

Typically, each independent measurement represents a allude on the graph. If there are multiple data sets gift plotted top top the exact same graph, each set should be stood for by a unique symbol.

## The Lines

Should you affix the data points v a line? typically the answer is correctly if the data points are component of a series of measurements of the exact same thing end a duration of time, for example. The implicitly is the the values execute not drop ago to zero between measurements. However, if you space graphing a scatterplot, you could do a trendline or regression line through the points, but would not connect each one. In part cases, the relationship may not it is in linear, yet exponential or logarithmic, or some various other mathematical function, therefore a curve could be an ext appropriate 보다 a line. However, there need to be a reason why a specific curve is chosen.

## The Legend

The legend becomes vital when you are graphingmore 보다 one dependence variable. For example, your legend mightindicate that eco-friendly lines or bars stand for rainfall in the tropicswhile brown present or bars represent rainfall in the desertregion.

## Use that Color

Colors or patterns should be used to aid conveyinformation, however should not be used merely for decoration. In theprevious example, why were green and brown chosen? If the color werereversed, would certainly this be much better or worse? Why?

## Which intuitive Representation?

The kind of data you space presenting may be bettersuited for one sort of graph 보다 another. For example, if yourmeasurements are periodic samples the an ongoing event, choose rainfalleach day, climate a line v points helps to convey that message. If onthe various other hand, girlfriend are very first averaging throughout distinct devices of timelike months, climate bars can work better. If you space trying tovisually display screen the piece of a whole, a piechart can be a goodchoice.

## Error Bars

Each allude on the graph could represent a single data point, or the average of a arsenal of measurements at that point. In the case, it would be appropriate to to express the range of variation around that point. Commonly the error approximately the typical is expressed together the traditional deviation, yet with small sample sizes, the typical error is periodically used.

## The Title

The title must be a brief statement describingthe topic of the graph, however should not explain or translate theresults.

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## What no to include

The graph should only include facets that improve the interpretation, and there should be a minimum of intuitive adornment. Because that example, bars have to not it is in 3-D uneven the third dimension add to information.

## How have the right to a graph be graded? Here"s a sample rubric:

item Rubric point out Dependent change 0=absent 1=present yet incomplete 2=present and complete Independent variable 0=absent 1=present yet incomplete 2=present and also complete Axes 0=absent 1=present however incomplete 2=present and complete range 0=absent 1=present however incomplete 2=present and also complete Axis labels 0=absent 1=present but incomplete 2=present and also complete devices 0=absent 1=present however incomplete 2=present and also complete Legend (if needed) 0=absent 1=present yet incomplete 2=present and also complete usage of color 0=absent 1=present but incomplete 2=present and complete Visual representation 0=absent 1=present but incomplete 2=present and also complete location 0=absent 1=present yet incomplete 2=present and also complete Resources: just how to make a graph in Microsoft Excel Download this example: rainfall.xls References: