Ammonia (NH3) is a colourless, pungent gas and is made up of nitrogen and hydrogen. In the NH3 Lewis structure, three hydrogen atoms are bound to a nitrogen atom. NH3 molecular geometry is of pyramidal shape with triangular pyramidal geometry.

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Uses of Ammonia

Ammonia is used in the manufacture of explosives.Dye making.Preparing medicines.Used in the production of fertilizers.Ammonia is also used in household cleaning products.

Haber Process

Most of the commercial ammonia is obtained by Haber’s process.In this process, 1 volume of Nitrogen and 3 volumes of hydrogen of purified gases are mixed. The mixed reactants are then compressed to 200-500 atm pressure by special pumps, injected into the heated reaction vessel, and then passed over the catalyst consisting of a mixture of Fe with little Molybdenum (Mo) maintained at 400-500 °C.The emerging reaction mixture (containing about 10% ammonia) is removed perpendicularly by liquefaction. The unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled. Excess Nitrogen is used to favor the reaction to the right.

Haber Process Equation

N2 (gas) +3H2 (gas) → 2NH3(gas).

The chemical reaction
between N2 and H2 is exothermic, reversible, and spontaneous. According to the Lechatlier principle, high pressure and low temperature are favourable conditions for the high yield of ammonia.

NH3 Polar Nature

TheNH3molecule ispolar. The electronegativity difference between N (3.04) and H ((2.2) makes the N–H bond polar. The difference in their electronegativities causes three dipole moments from the three N-H bonds in one direction.The three dipoles in one direction form a net dipole moment that makes it a polar molecule.In addition, the lone pair on the nitrogen atom exerts an outward force on the bond due to which the shape of NH3 becomes unsymmetrical.


Ammonia has the trigonal structureMany industries use the Haber process to produce ammonia on an industrial scale.Some well-known uses of ammonia are dye-making, preparing medicines, and production of fertilizers.NH3 Lewis structure shows that there are threeN-Hbonds and one lone pair

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Below are some of the frequently asked questions

Is NH3 is fetal?

Exposure to 300 ppm is dangerous to life and health (IDLH) and can be fatal within a few breaths. Ammonia is corrosive to the skin, eyes and lungs.

NH3 (ammonia) is a toxic gas.Ammonium is a nontoxic salt. It is the ionized form of ammonia.Its ions produce during ammonification.

Ammonia can irritate the respiratory tract and can cause coughing and shortness of breath. Its inhalation can also cause nose and throat irritation.

Ammonia consists of one negatively charged nitrogen ion and three positively charged hydrogen ions. The pH of standard ammonia is about 11.

Bottom Line

This article explains the steps to draw the Ammonia lewis structure, molecular geometry and arrangement of atoms in NH3, the definition of lewis structure, and the definition of lone pair of electrons. Please feel to comment if you have any questions.

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AuthorMs. Sana JavedSana has been working at since 2020 as a content writer. She has a Mphil degree in Pharmaceutics.