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In the shell atomic model, electrons occupy different energy levels, or shells. The K and L shells are shown for a neon atom.
Screened from the nucleus by intervening electrons, the outer (valence) electrons of the atoms of the heavier noble gases are held less firmly and can be removed (ionized) more easily from the atoms than can the electrons of the lighter noble gases. The energy required for the removal of one electron is called the first ionization energy. In 1962, while working at the University of British Columbia, British chemist Neil Bartlett discovered that platinum hexafluoride would remove an electron from (oxidize) molecular oxygen to form the salt
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In 2006, scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, announced that oganesson, the next noble gas, had been made in 2002 and 2005 in a cyclotron. (Most elements with atomic numbers greater than 92—i.e., the transuranium elements—have to be made in particle accelerators.) No physical or chemical properties of oganesson can be directly determined since only a few atoms of oganesson have been produced.