Phosphorous trichloride, likewise known as phosphorus (III) chloride, is a chemistry compound mainly used in the manufacturing of organophosphorus substance because that chemical industry.
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Formula and also structure: The phosphorous trichloride chemistry formula is PCl3 and also its molar mass is 137.33 g mol-1. The molecule is formed by the cation phosphorous and also 3 anions chloride. The molecule has a geometry trigonal pyramidal early the repulsion brought about by a lone pair of the phosphorous under the 3 chloride atoms. Its chemical structure have the right to be written as below, in the typical representations offered for organic molecules.
Occurrence: Phosphorous trichloride is not discovered in nature. The is just obtain through necessary synthesis.
Preparation: Phosphorous trichloride is mostly developed from the yellow or white phosphorous and also gas chlorine. The reaction additionally produces phosphorous pentachloride,however in order to avoid the formation of PCl5 is added more phosphorous:
P4 + 6 Cl2 → 4 PCl3
Physical properties: Phosphorous trichloride is a yellow to colorless, liquid, through pungent and also irritating odor. That melting and boiling suggest are -93.6 ºC and also 76.1 ºC and also its density is 1.574 g mL-1. Phosphorous trichloride reacts through water and also ethanol and also it is dissolve benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and ether.
Chemical properties: Phosphorous trichloride has an amazing chemical behavior. It deserve to suffer plenty of reactions and also being a electrophile and also nucleophile for promoting a great variety that reactions. It can react with redox reactions to kind other phosphorous compounds such together pentachloride, phosphoryl chloride or thiophosphoryl chloride. Since the lone pair the phosphorous it can act as nucleophile in part reactions, specifically with Lewis acids together AlCl3. Moreover, the phosphorous have the right to accept much more electrons, so the it can additionally be an electrophile.
Uses: Phosphorous trichloride is used widely in chemical industry, largely in the production of pesticides, surfactants, petrol additives, plastics, medicinal products and also textiles. That is likewise used in the production of other phosphorous compound such together phosphorous pentachloride, phosphoryl chloride or thiophosphoryl chloride. Moreover, phosphorous trichloride is additionally used as precursor and intermediate of part chemical reactions together Wittig reaction.
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Health effects/safety hazards: Phosphorous trichloride can cause severe damages to skin, eyes and also mucous membranes. It is deadly by ingestion, inhalation and can be took in by skin. Additionally, this compounds reacts violently through water creating irritating fumes which are incredibly toxic. It is not flammable.