Fluorine (F) is the very first element in the Halogen team (group 17) in the regular table. Its atom number is 9 and its atomic load is 19, and also it"s a gas in ~ room temperature. The is the most electronegative element, offered that that is the top facet in the Halogen Group, and therefore is very reactive. It is a nonmetal, and is among the couple of elements that can kind diatomic molecule (F2). It has 5 valence electrons in the 2p level. The electron configuration is 1s22s22p5. It will usually kind the anion F- due to the fact that it is incredibly electronegative and a strong oxidizing agent. Fluorine is a Lewis mountain in weak acid, which way that that accepts electrons as soon as reacting. Fluorine has countless isotopes, however the just stable one uncovered in nature is F-19.

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Quick reference Table

symbol atom Number group Electron construction Atomic load density Melting point Boiling suggest an important Point Oxidation states Electronegativity stable Isotopes
17 (Halogens)
18.998 g
1.7 g/L
144.13K, 5.172 MPa

Brief History

In the so late 1600"s mineral which us now recognize contain fluorine were provided in etching glass. The discovery of the element was prompted by the search for the ubraintv-jp.comical substance which to be able to attack glass (it is HF, a weak acid). The early history of the isolation and also work with fluorine and hydrogen fluoride is fill with mishaps since both are exceptionally dangerous. Eventually, electrolysis that a mixture the KF and also HF (carefully ensuring the the result hydrogen and also fluorine would not come in contact) in a platinum apparatus gave in the element.

Figure 2: digital configuration that Fluorine

Fluorine is the most electronegative aspect because it has 5 electrons in it"s 2P shell. The optimal electron construction of the 2P orbital includes 6 electrons, so because Fluorine is for this reason close to ideal electron configuration, the electrons room held very tightly to the nucleus. The high electronegativity the fluorine explains its little radius since the positive protons have a very strong attraction to the an unfavorable electrons, holding them closer come the nucleus than the bigger and less electronegative elements.

Reactions of Fluorine

Because of its reactivity, element fluorine is never uncovered in nature and no other ubraintv-jp.comical aspect can displace fluorine from its compounds. Fluorine bonds with nearly any element, both metals and also nonmetals, due to the fact that it is a very strong oxidizing agent. That is very unstable and also reactive due to the fact that it is therefore close to its right electron configuration. It creates covalent bonds v nonmetals, and since the is the many electronegative element, is constantly going to it is in the element that is reduced. It can also type a diatomic aspect with chin (\(F_2\)), or covalent bonds where it oxidizes various other halogens (\(ClF\), \(ClF_3\), \(ClF_5\)). It will react explosively with many elements and compounds such as Hydrogen and also water. Elemental Fluorine is slightly basic, which means that as soon as it reacts with water it forms \(OH^-\).

\<3F_2+2H_2O \rightarrow O_2+4HF \tag1\>

When linked with Hydrogen, Fluorine develops Hydrofluoric mountain (\(HF\)), which is a weak acid. This acid is really dangerous and also when dissociated can cause severe damage to the body since while it might not it is in painful initially, the passes through tissues quickly and also can reason deep burns the interfere with nerve function.


There are additionally some essential compounds do of Fluorine, ranging from nontoxic to extremely toxic. Fluorine forms covalent bonds v Carbon, i m sorry sometimes kind into stable aromatic rings. As soon as Carbon reacts with Fluorine the reaction is complex and creates a mixture of \(CF_4\), \(C_2F_6\), an \(C_5F_12\).


Fluorine reacts through Oxygen to kind \(OF_2\) due to the fact that Fluorine is much more electronegative than Oxygen. The reaction goes:

\<2F_2 + O_2 \rightarrow 2OF_2 \tag4\>

Fluorine is therefore electronegative that periodically it will certainly even type molecules v noble gases favor Xenon, such together the the molecule Xenon Difluoride, \(XeF_2\).


Fluorine additionally forms solid ionic compounds with metals. Some common ionic reactions of Fluorine are:


\<4F_2 + HCl + H_2O \rightarrow 3HF + OF_2 + ClF_3 \tag7\>


Applications of Fluorine

Compounds the fluorine are existing in fluoridated toothpaste and also in numerous municipal water equipment where they aid to avoid tooth decay. And, of course, fluorocarbons such as Teflon have made a significant impact ~ above life in the 20th century. Over there are countless applications of fluorine:

Rocket fuel Polymer and plastics manufacturing teflon and also tefzel production When linked with Oxygen, offered as a frozen refrigerator cooler Hydrofluoric acid used for glass etching Purify windy water offers Uranium manufacturing Air conditioning


Fluorine have the right to either be discovered in nature or developed in a lab. To do it in a lab, compounds prefer Potassium Fluoride are placed through electrolysis v Hydrofluoric acid to develop pure Fluorine and other compounds. It can be brought out through a variety of compounds, typically ionic ones including Fluorine and also a metal. Fluorine can additionally be discovered in nature in assorted minerals and compounds. The two main compounds it deserve to be uncovered in space Fluorspar (\(CaF_2\)) and Cryolite (\(Na_3AlF_6\)).

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Newth, G. S. Inorganic ubraintv-jp.comistry. Longmans, Green, and Co.:New York, 1903. Latimer, Wendell M., Hildebrand, Joel H. Reference book of inorganic ubraintv-jp.comistry. The Macmillan Company: new York, 1938.