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Born:April 6, 1866San FranciscoCalifornia...(Show more)Died:August 9, 1936 (aged 70)CarmelCalifornia...(Show more)Notable household Members:spouse Ella Winter Stewart...(Show more)

Lincoln Steffens, in complete Joseph Lincoln Steffens, (born April 6, 1866, san Francisco, California, U.S.—died respectable 9, 1936, Carmel, California), American journalist, lecturer, and political philosopher, a top figure amongst the authors whom U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt called muckrakers.

After graduating native the college of California in ~ Berkeley in 1889, Steffens studied psychology through Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig and also with Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, which shown his straightforward positivist orientation. During nine year of brand-new York City newspaper work ending in 1901, Steffens found abundant evidence of the corruption of politicians by businessmen seeking one-of-a-kind privileges. In 1901, after becoming managing editor of McClure’s Magazine, he started to publish the influential write-ups later built up as The shame of the Cities (1904), a work closer come a documented sociological instance study than to a sensational journalistic exposé. His later books included The struggle for Self-Government (1906) and Upbuilders (1909). Through Ida Tarbell and also others Steffens cofounded The American Magazine in 1906.

Many nationwide great tours won Steffens recognition. That raised quite than reply questions, jolting his audience right into awareness of the moral paradox of exclusive interest in windy affairs by comic irony fairly than by moral indignation. That revealed the shortcomings the the renowned dogmas that connected economic success with moral worth, and national progress with individual self-interest.

The Mexican change (1910–20) and the Russian revolution of 1917 rotate Steffens’s fist from revolutionary to revolution. After ~ a expedition to Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) in 1919, he wrote to a friend, “I have actually seen the future; and also it works.” His unorthodoxy lost him his American audience during the 1920s. He ongoing to study revolutionary politics in Europe and also became miscellaneous of a legendary character for younger expatriates.


After the good success the his Autobiography (1931), Steffens supported plenty of communist tasks but refused identification with any type of party or doctrine.

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