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Geographer"s Space

The French Language in Louisiana and Quebec Richard Campanella initiates a cross cultural connection in an interview v French Canadian Lisanne Gamelin

by Richard Campanella

One basic goal of the liberal arts is to engage people in cross-cultural discussions toward a much better understanding the people and also place, past and also present. That’s precisely what happened at, of all places, a recent Louisiana sweetheart of the liberal arts soiree marking the relax of the summer 2017 Louisiana cultural Vistas, wherein I was fortunate sufficient to strike up a conversation v a young French Canadian called Lisanne Gamelin. You’ll meet Ms. Gamelin in a moment, however suffice come say the our conversation shed light on the social location of Louisiana French–speakers in the 1800s—and the decline of the language in the 1900s—by assessing the standing of French in Montreal and also Quebec today. What adheres to is an edited email interview I carried out with Ms. Gamelin in September 2017, ~ she had returned home.

Tell us about yourself, your interests in language, and also what girlfriend were approximately in Louisiana.

I’m a Francophone from Quebec in eastern Canada. After returning from a year in Texas whereby I ended up being bilingual, ns completed my degree in history and Film researches at Concordia, one English-speaking university in Montreal. I have operated for exchange students’ organizations and also as an occasion planner because that a festival. I remained in Louisiana native April to July 2017, where I expanded my network to Louisiana’s social sector, consisting of in Arnaudville in Cajun country, in ~ a little arts and culture collective called NUNU in Baton Rouge, and also in new Orleans in ~ the Jazz Museum.  

Aside from differing population sizes (of Quebec and also Louisiana, and also of Montreal and new Orleans), what are the main reasons why the French language has grew in her homeland however declined here? 

It to be a lengthy struggle, going ago to the end of the French and also Indian War. At that time, the French-speaking populaces along the Saint Lawrence River, currently the province of Quebec, were allowed to stay and also speak French, whereas the Acadians, also French speakers from contemporary Nova Scotia, to be deported Louisiana.  

It was believed a “revenge that the cradle” would occur, as the Church encouraged French Canadians come have huge families. It failed in the lengthy run partly due to an boosted English-speaking immigration, consisting of Loyalists native the states at the end of the battle of Independence, and also because immigration from France was totally shut down.  

For virtually two hundreds years, French speakers in Quebec remained second-class citizens also if they created a majority in your province. That wasn’t till the “Quiet Revolution” in the 1960s, as soon as French-speaking political leaders started chanting “Maîtres chez nous” (“Masters at home”), that transforms started. That would result in the instauration of bill 101 in 1977. The law dictated French together the language that business, obligated French-only signage (later modified come include restricted English signage together well), and mandated the Francophones and also immigrants send their youngsters to French-speaking institutions until the period of seventeen. 

Whenever I define Bill 101 to Louisianans, I regularly heard the word “draconian,” together if this legislation infringed on separation, personal, instance liberties. To be fair, there are people in Quebec suggesting the very same thing, or the the law prevents French speaker from achieving your true potential by holding on too lot to your language. I believe preserving French is a cumulative effort, however that bilingualism is important to our country’s prosperity. I add by ending up being bilingual myself, and also am pleased once I meet fellow English-speaking Canadians act the same.  


Lisanne Gamelin

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Let’s speak specifically about the French language in Montreal. What sort of spatial trends of Francophones and also Anglophones execute we see? do they live separately? 

Historically, Francophones and also Anglophones stayed in separate communities in Montreal. Those east from Boulevard Saint-Laurent were predominantly French-speaking, vice versa, those west were English-speaking. Nowadays, a far better social mixing in terms of language exist in Montreal’s neighborhoods, yet old behavior die hard. You will certainly still listen the notorious Montreal bilingual greeting “Bonjour-Hi” in the downtown area, west that Saint-Laurent. Whereas in Hochelaga, a former French-speaking working-class area and also now one up-and-coming community located in the east, you will hear a basic “Allô” greeting. Also in the eastern parts of Montreal, you will get organization in English too, yet not as quickly as you would in the western component of the city. However, French company is mandatory by law. 

Tell us around the Boulevard Saint-Laurent and its role or position in the linguistic location of Montreal. 

Boulevard Saint-Laurent—or together it is also locally known, “La Main,” a term even used by French speakers—has always been the invisible line in between French and English components of the city. Because that instance, the Plateau neighborhood is separated by this boulevard. The east component is lived in mainly by Montreal’s French-speaking regional celebrities and, in the last few decades, a brand-new wave of young experts emigrating from France. West of the boulevard, in what is called “McGill ghetto,” student from mcgill University, a peak English-speaking university, often tend to move right into this component of the Plateau because that proximity and also cheaper housing than in some various other western areas like Westmount. 

From your learnings about brand-new Orleans, what type of parallels or distinctions do girlfriend see between the linguistic location of Montreal and new Orleans, and of Boulevard Saint-Laurent and also Canal Street? 

I to be intrigued to discover that a similar pattern to Boulevard Saint-Laurent also existed in new Orleans in the kind of Canal Street. However, from what ns understood, the etymological separation of brand-new Orleans to be a aware decision, choose honoring Lafayette and also Jackson in publicly parks in each other’s parts. (Editor’s note: indigenous 1836 to 1852, new Orleans was officially subdivided right into three semi-autonomous municipalities, mostly along ethnic and linguistic lines, with Canal Street forming the department separating the mainly Francophone very first Municipality native the mainly Anglophone 2nd Municipality.) The “ghettoization” the Montreal happened an ext organically.  

What struck you about the 2 cities’ constructed environments? 

I was impressed by the diversity of brand-new Orleans’ architecture, whether it be the mix the French-named roads with Spanish style in the French 4 minutes 1 or the shotgun dwellings , making it distinctive in the unified States. Similarly, many human being consider Montreal the many European city of phibìc America. Girlfriend will find colonial-period structures like churches combined in recent structures, and archways made right into gateways to universities or hospitals.  

In terms of street names, i was often amazed through how new Orleanians would pronounce the French quarter streets, prefer Decatur or Chartres. It was the the opposite of the way I would have actually pronounced it as a French speaker. In Montreal, English speakers execute not anglicize street names, yet rather pronounce them the French way. Because that example, no one would say “St. Lawrence Boulevard.”  

I also couldn’t aid but an alert that Montreal and brand-new Orleans had one more thing in common: potholes! I suggested with many brand-new Orleanians the Montrealers had actually it worse—until we went for a ride. It to be a hard call.  

New Orleans and Louisiana were founded by francophone French Canadians. Together a French Canadian yourself, what were her impressions of contemporary New Orleans and Louisiana in regard to the French language?

It surprised me that most French speakers weren’t even located in new Orleans but rather closer to Lafayette. I was saddened (although not surprised) to hear French, consisting of Cajun and also Creole, was illegalized because that a time, creating this generational gap amongst French speakers in Louisiana. However, similar discriminatory practices also occurred throughout Canada. See French barely clearly shows in regards to public signage likewise disappointed me. When I might find someone that spoke French, ns realized how different our accents and word selection were, making it sometimes an overwhelming to interact freely.  

Any plan to go back to Louisiana, or to store Louisiana in her life? 

Louisiana to be so welcoming; that was difficult to say goodbye. I will be back, the is for sure.  

Richard Campanella, a geographer v the Tulane college of Architecture, is the author of Bienville’s Dilemma, Geographies of new Orleans, Bourbon Street: A History, Lincoln in brand-new Orleans and also other books. He might be got to through, rcampane


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