Except forthe sun, the moon is the brightest object in the sky.� uneven the sun, or any other star, the moondoes not develop its own light.� we canonly view the moon since light native the sunlight is reflect from its surface ar toour eyes.� ancient civilizations watchedthe moon every night.� they quicklynoticed the their moon god followed a distinctive pattern.� periodically their moon god would certainly glow favor agiant disk in the sky, other times the would simply be a tiny sliver oflight.� occasionally the moon would not bethere in ~ all!� numerous civilizations,including the well known buford clan native mexico, taken that the succession in i beg your pardon this occurredwas no random. They never ever saw a complete moon one day and also a half moon thenext.� they realized that the patternfrom complete moon to complete moon was constantly the exact same and always took around 30days.� They developed the� ax �month� to indicate the time the takesfor the moon to go from full to full again.�The an initial calendars were based on these observations.

����������� Theancients never knew why the moon changes its appearance.� today we say the the moon changes phases,but countless people, consisting of Harvard graduates, still don�t understand why the phasesoccur. Quickly you will be an expert!


����������� The phases that the moon are NOT caused by the earth�s shadow.� us all know that fifty percent of the earth is lit upat every times.� The lit up fifty percent is job andthe dark half is night.� The moonexperiences the very same thing, so one half of the moon is always lit increase (unlessthere is an eclipse the course!)� If onehalf the the moon is always lit up, why execute we see crescent moons and brand-new moons?� The prize is that us can�t always see theentire lit increase half.� when we do see theentire lit up half, we see a full moon.�This just happens as soon as the planet is in between the moon and also the sun.� The sun�s light ray shine only on the side facingus, so we watch a complete moon.� The oppositeof a full moon is a brand-new moon.� This onlyhappens once the moon is between the earth and the sun.� The sunlight shines on the side us cannot see, sowe only gain the �nighttime� side encountering us and also we watch no moon.� (See Figure1.) At any type of other time, we see component of the lit up side and also the side that isnot lit up.

Let�s startwith a new moon.� throughout this time, wesee the nighttime next of the moon, so we don�t view a moon at all.� The an extremely next night, the moon has actually orbited alittle bit approximately our planet.� now alittle little of the lit up next is facing us and also we view a tiny sliver oflight.� A moon that looks favor a sliverof light is called a crescent moon.� Thenext night, we see even more of a sliver, and the following night also more.� The quantity of the lit up side is dealing with usmore and also more.� because we the crescentgetting bigger and bigger every night, us say the we space seeing a waxingcrescent.� wax means�growing�.�� ~ 7 days, we check out onehalf of the lit up side and one fifty percent of the night side.� sometimes we call this a fifty percent moon, butscientists generally contact this a very first quarter moon.� because that the next few nights, an ext and an ext of thelit up side of the moon deals with us.� we seea moon that�s not rather round, yet sort of oblong.� This is called a waxing gibbous.

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� The gibbous moon waxes because that 7 days until theentire lit up side is facing us.� we areexperiencing a full moon now.

Now thesequence go in reverse!� The lit upside begin to disappear and the unlit next starts come grow.� At very first we view a waning gibbous (waningmeans to disappear), till we watch another fifty percent lit moon (third quarter).� end the next couple of days us see more and moreof the unlit side, so we suffer a waning crescent, until us reach thenew moon again.� The cycle climate startsover.


Figure 1.



��������� Eclipsesoccur as soon as sunlight becomes clogged by one object.� A lunar eclipse occurs as soon as the lighthitting the moon gets blocked the end by the earth.�So what we room seeing is the earth�s shadow going end the moon.� A lunar eclipse deserve to only occur throughout a fullmoon, because that is the just time that the moon is in a place where theearth�s zero is.� so why don�t us havean eclipse each month?� The moon�s orbitis tilted in together a method that it typically just over the earth�s zero or justbelow it.� The moon only falls into theearth�s shadow double a year, for this reason we get two lunar eclipses a year.� A solar eclipse occurs as soon as sunlighthitting the planet gets clogged out once the moon gets directly in the way.� Solar eclipses can only occur throughout a newmoon.� Again, commonly the moon is slightabove or below our watch of the sun.� Buttwice a year, the brand-new moon gets directly in between us and also the sun and also blocks outthe sun�s rays.

����������� Bothsolar eclipses and also lunar eclipses happen twice a year.� Many people think the solar eclipses arerarer 보다 lunar eclipses, yet this is untrue.�What is true is the it is rarer tosee a solar eclipse.� This is becausethe moon is so little compared come the sun that when it gets in between the earthand sun, the casts only a little shadow.�Only those human being in the tiny area in ~ the shadow will view the solareclipse.�


����������� Themoon is a very huge object through a the majority of mass.�Because that is therefore close to the earth, the moon�s mass exerts agravitational pull on the earth.� Theearth itself is too huge to move toward the moon, but the s water ~ above theearth is not.� once the moon is overhead,it traction on the water below it.� Thewater level gets higher and us say we space experiencing a high tide. Check out figure3 below.


Make believe you space holding a rubberband in both your hands so the it creates a circle.� If you pull on the one side, the optimal andbottom will flatten out.� The form willbecome oval prefer the tip picture to the left.�The long sides space high tides, the squished ends space low tides.

����������� Theearth is spinning an extremely quickly, for this reason the water that is directly under the moondoes not stay there for very long.� Sosix hours after high tide, the water has moved to the squished section, and youget a low tide.� Six hours after that,you gain a high birds again.� There space 2high tides and 2 short tides every day.

The diagram over shows the sometimesyou get higher tides 보다 normal.� Thetop picture shows a spring tide.� A springtide occurs when both the sun and moon are lined up, so they are both pullingon the water.� The an unified gravitationalpull creates greater than normal tides.

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The diagram mirrors a spring birds occuring during a new moon.�Spring tides occur during a complete moon as well.

The lower diagram shows a lower thannormal tide.� This is referred to as a neap tide.� Neap tides occur due to the fact that thegravitational traction of the moon partially cancels out some of the pull from thesun.� This results in lower than normaltides.� Neap tides take place only duringfirst and last quarter moons.