Rhizopus stolonifer exhibits both sexual and asexual reproduction. The asexual phase occurs more frequently. The surrounding condition in which the mold resides, is the element that causes either form of reproduction by the mold.

You are watching: What are the structures called that anchor bread molds to their food substrate?

Before discovering the specifics,click below to view just how Rhizopus stolonifer, together a member of the phylum Zygomycota, compare to other phylum within the kingdom of Fungi.

When the mold come in call with a substrate, such together bread, it an initial spreads over the surface and also penetrates that while sending hyphae inward come absorb the nutrients. Rhizopus stolonifer grows mainly as mycelia, which consists of long filamentous cells, or hyphae, that lack cross walls, recognized as septa. The lack of septa allows the mold come be called coenocytic. Coenocytic method that the mold is a multinucleate cabinet enclosed through one cell wall that contains chitin.

Asexual Reproduction


In asexual reproduction, unique non-motile hyphae dubbed sporangiophores create sporangia that kind in an upright fashion. The sporangia in ~ the advice of the upright hyphae construct as bulbous black color portions. Branching structures, dubbed rhizoids, anchor the fungus right into the substrate, releasing digestive enzyme and absorbing nutrients because that the fungus. When conditions are great the sporangia, containing countless haploid spores of i beg your pardon are created through mitosis, relax the spores right into the surrounding atmosphere. These spores then may land on a moist surface and also the life cycle repeats.

Side note: Rhizopus stolonifer spores space usually dispersed in hot dry weather and also they contain allergic proteins, i beg your pardon can reason respiratory and also nasal symptom in humans, such together coughing, chest discomfort and allergic reactions.

Sexual Reproduction

In sexual reproduction, resistant spherical spores space formed, dubbed zygospores. Zygospores space thick-walled, which do them highly resistant to eco-friendly hardships. The word zygospore originates from the Greek indigenous zygos, which means joining. The zygospores room the just diploid phase of Rhizopus stolonifer reproduction. They space composed of 2 suspensor cells, which are the previous gametangia or hyphae. Over there is a suspensor cabinet on either side of a large, rough, dark brown spore. The suspensor cell are present to provide support. The zygospore forms from two special haploid hyphae of the contrary mating species that touch due to hormones and being in close proximity of every other. The two cytoplasms intermingle, additionally known together plasmogamy. Together this occurs the nuclei the both parents get in the conjunction, leading to the relaxing spore to develop. Karyogamy is the term used to describe the blend of the two nuclei. After the zygospore has totally formed, meiosis occurs and also haploid spores space formed and also dispersed. The zygospore can come to be dormant for number of months in ~ a time. Meiosis tho occurs and also a sporangium similar to the asexually produced sporangium is produced when the zygospore lastly cracks open.

Here is an instance of the sexual life cycle of Rhizopus stolonifer.

Note: Rhizopus nigricans is a synonym for Rhizopus stolonifer.


To learn around another fungus that has actually a similar life cycle as Rhizopus stolonifer, pleasego come Aspergillus fumigatus.

See more: Which Terrestrial Biome Has The Most Biodiversity, Terrestrial Biomes

Proceed on to learn around the interactions Rhizopus stolonifer has actually with other things.