Electron cloud modelElectron cloud factswho discovered the electron cloud ?what are the energy levels of the electron cloud ?

Electron Cloud is a region surrounding nucleus in which high chance of electrons will be found.

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The electron is

A negatively charged (free or bounded) particle an atom and charge on a single electron is a unit -ve charge.The smallest and lightest of the particle in an atom.Electrons are in constant motion as they circulate around the nucleus.Electrons in atom lies in various specific spherical shells having various diameter, generally recognized as energy level, in which electron circulates.The energy confined in the electron is become higher if spherical shells are greater.

Discovery Of The Electron:

• Sir William Crookes experimented in a vacuum using cathode ray tubes to understand the characteristics of hot metal.• Electron was discovered by him in the year 1897, when he was observing the properties of cathode ray.

What is Proton ?


“a stable subatomic particle observed in most of the atom, with a +ve. electrical charged equivalent in magnitude to that of an electron.”

This is one of main constituents of atom. (with neutrons and electrons)

Example of proton

A single proton is found in the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.

Who discovered the Protons?

Proton Discovery

Protons has been observed as H+ by Eugen Goldstein (1886). In 1909, Ernest Rutherford has discovered alpha and beta particles too during an experiment ‘first splitting’ with uranium atom. He renamed “protons” based on the Greek word “protos” which means first, during that time, generally denoted by p+. In the year 1911, Ernest Rutherford has discovered one of his famous invention of physics named ‘Atomic Nucleus’, from that start of modern physics has it’s new dimension.

What is Neutron?


a subatomic particle having approximately same mass as a proton but with out having any electrical charge (charge-free). This particle found in all atomic nuclei apart from ordinary hydrogen (H1).

Who discovered the neutrons?

James Chadwick invented neutron, used scattering data to calculate the mass of this neutral particle.

Who discovered the Protons?

In 1899, Rutherford discovered alpha and beta ‘rays’ from uranium. He later demonstrated that alpha rays are the nuclei of helium atoms. He discovered in 1914 that the nucleus of an atom constituted and extremely dense but small fraction of the volume of an atom and that this nucleus was positive in charge. The discovery of protons can be attributed to Rutherford.

Important Parameter of Atomic Particles


Mass of the electron

The rest mass of the electron is 9.1093837015 × 10-31 kg. This is 1/ 1836th times of proton.


Atoms are made up of a +vely charge nucleus encircled by electron clouds having -ve charged.Generally, centralized nucleus is a collection of positively charged particles named proton, and neutral particle neutron, So, overall nucleus is +ve charged.

Binding Energy:

Binding energy is the minimum energy mandatory to disassemble or break the nucleus of an atom into its constituent parts.

Shape and Size of the Atom:

Some atoms are perfectly spherical. Though an atom does not have a distinct edge, since the electron density slowly falls off, where property you choose to quantify on those atoms is exactly the exact same regardless of what direction you consider the atom out of H2, He, Li, and Ne are typical examples of the atom.

The diameter of an atom varies from about 0.1 to 0.5 nm (1 × 10−10 m to 5 × 10−10 m) Therefore, an atom is a million times smaller than human hair.

See more: Toyota Corolla ( 1998 Toyota Corolla Fuse Box Diagram For 1998 Toyota Corolla

What is in an Electron Cloud?

Electron cloud definition

An electron cloud is ​the area where chance of electron presence in -surrounding to an atomic nucleus is maximum. It is representing a region in which maximum probability of e- occurrence be there.
Electron Cloud

Who discovered the electron cloud ?

I am Subrata, Ph.D. in Engineering, more specifically interested in Nuclear and Energy science related domains. I have multi-domain experience starting from Service Engineer for electronics drives and micro-controller to specialized R&D work. I have worked on various projects, including nuclear fission, fusion to solar photovoltaics, heater design, and other projects. I have a keen interest in the science domain, energy, electronics and instrumentation, and industrial automation, primarily because of the wide range of stimulating problems inherited to this field, and every day it’s changing with industrial demand. Our aim here is to exemplify these unconventional, complex science subjects in an easy and understandable to the point manner.I am passionate about learning new techniques and guide young minds to perform like a professional, have a vision, and improve their performance by enriching knowledge and experience.Apart from the professional front, I like photography, painting, and exploring the beauty of nature.Lets connect over linked-in - https://www.linkedin.com/in/subrata-jana-399336140/

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