, sucrases, and also lactases, i m sorry are likewise present in the brush border the the tiny intestinal wall. Maltase breaks under maltose into glucose. Various other disaccharides, such together sucrose and lactose are damaged down by sucrase and lactase, respectively. Sucrase breaks under sucrose (or “table sugar”) right into glucose and also fructose, and also lactase breaks down lactose (or “milk sugar”) into glucose and also galactose. The monosaccharides (glucose) thus created are took in and then deserve to be provided in metabolic pathways to exploit energy. The monosaccharides are transported throughout the intestinal epithelium into the bloodstream to it is in transported to the various cells in the body. The procedures in carbohydrate digestion space summarized in figure 15.16 and also Table 15.5.

You are watching: What are the end products of carbohydrate digestion

*
Figure 15.16. Digestion of carbohydrates is perform by number of enzymes. Starch and also glycogen are damaged down into glucose by amylase and maltase. Sucrose (table sugar) and also lactose (milk sugar) are broken down by sucrase and also lactase, respectively.

A big part that protein digestion takes location in the stomach. The enzyme pepsin plays crucial role in the cradle of proteins by breaking under the undamaged protein to peptides, i beg your pardon are quick chains of four to nine amino acids. In the duodenum, various other enzymes— trypsin, elastase, and also chymotrypsin—act on the peptides reducing lock to smaller peptides. Trypsin elastase, carboxypeptidase, and also chymotrypsin are produced by the pancreas and also released into the duodenum whereby they plot on the chyme. Further malfunction of peptides to solitary amino mountain is aided by enzymes dubbed peptidases (those that failure peptides). Specifically, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, and aminopeptidase play important roles in reducing the peptides to free amino acids. The amino mountain are took in into the bloodstream v the little intestines. The procedures in protein digestion are summarized in number 15.17 and Table 15.6.

*
Figure 15.17Protein digestion is a multistep process that starts in the stomach and also continues with the intestines.

Lipid digestion starts in the stomach through the aid of lingual lipase and also gastric lipase. However, the mass of lipid digestion wake up in the little intestine due to pancreatic lipase. When chyme beginning the duodenum, the hormone responses cause the relax of bile, which is produced in the liver and also stored in the gallbladder. Bile aids in the digestion of lipids, mostly triglycerides through emulsification. Emulsification is a procedure in which big lipid globules are broken down into several small lipid globules. These little globules are an ext widely spread in the chyme quite than forming large aggregates. Lipids are hydrophobic substances: in the existence of water, castle will aggregate to kind globules to minimize exposure to water. Bile includes bile salts, which room amphipathic, meaning they save hydrophobic and also hydrophilic parts. Thus, the bile salts hydrophilic side have the right to interface through water top top one side and the hydrophobic next interfaces through lipids on the other. By act so, bile salt emulsify big lipid globules into tiny lipid globules.

Why is emulsification crucial for cradle of lipids? Pancreatic juices contain enzymes dubbed lipases (enzymes that break down lipids). If the lipid in the chyme aggregates into large globules, very small surface area the the lipids is accessible for the lipases to act on, leaving lipid digestion incomplete. By forming an emulsion, bile salts rise the accessible surface area of the lipids numerous fold. The pancreatic lipases have the right to then action on the lipids an ext efficiently and also digest them, as comprehensive in number 15.18. Lipases malfunction the lipids into fatty acids and glycerides. These molecules can pass with the plasma membrane that the cell and enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining. The bile salt surround long-chain fat acids and monoglycerides developing tiny spheres referred to as micelles. The micelles move right into the brush border of the tiny intestine absorptive cells whereby the long-chain fat acids and also monoglycerides diffuse the end of the micelles into the absorptive cell leaving the micelles behind in the chyme. The long-chain fatty acids and also monoglycerides recombine in the absorptive cell to form triglycerides, which accumulation into globules and also become coated with proteins. These big spheres are called chylomicrons. Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol, and also other lipids and also have proteins on their surface. The surface is also composed that the hydrophilic phosphate “heads” the phospholipids. Together, they enable the chylomicron to relocate in one aqueous environment without exposing the lipids to water. Chylomicrons leaving the absorptive cells via exocytosis. Chylomicrons enter the lymphatic vessels, and then get in the blood in the subclavian vein.

*
Figure 15.18. Lipids space digested and absorbed in the small intestine.

See more: Does Family Dollar Take Food Stamps Stores Near You, Family Dollar Store 8 Snap Retailer Nc


*

*
Figure 15.19. Mechanical and chemical digestion of food takes place in many steps, start in the mouth and ending in the rectum.