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As early on as September 1861, the CSA started issuing national currency, promise to pay the bearer the face amount — six months ~ the ratification of a tranquility treaty.

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Within days of the fall of fort Sumter, four much more states joined the Confederacy: Virginia, north Carolina, Tennessee, and also Arkansas. The fight lines were currently drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in almost every way. Practically 21 million people lived in 23 north states. The South asserted just 9 million people — including 3.5 million slaves — in 11 confederate states. Regardless of the North"s better population, however, the South had an army nearly equal in size during the an initial year the the war.

The North had actually an massive industrial benefit as well. In ~ the start of the war, the Confederacy had actually only one-ninth the industrial capacity the the Union. But that statistic to be misleading. In 1860, the North produced 97 percent of the country"s firearms, 96 percent of its railroad locomotives, 94 percent the its cloth, 93 percent that its pig iron, and also over 90 percent that its boots and shoes. The North had twice the thickness of railroads every square mile. There was not even one rifleworks in the whole South.


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The south was in ~ a significant disadvantage as soon as it came to manufacturing, yet the Confederacy managed to save its weapons firing by producing ammunition indigenous melted-down bells native churches and town squares.

All the the primary ingredients the gunpowder to be imported. Since the North controlled the navy, the seas were in the hands of the Union. A blockade could suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and also willpower.

The South could produce every the food that needed, though carrying it to soldiers and civilians was a major problem. The South also had a good nucleus the trained officers. 7 of the eight military colleges in the country were in the South.

The South also proved come be very resourceful. By the finish of the war, it had developed armories and also foundries in numerous states. Castle built substantial gunpowder mills and melted down thousands of church and also plantation bells for bronze to develop cannon.

The South"s biggest strength put in the fact that it was fighting top top the defensive in its own territory. Familiar with the landscape, Southerners might harass northern invaders.

The military and political objectives of the Union were lot more challenging to accomplish. The Union had to invade, conquer, and also occupy the South. It had actually to ruin the South"s capacity and also will to stand up to — a formidable difficulty in any type of war.


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"We had the poorest commissary arrangements, and also all I could get because that my guys was salt and also hard crackers. I made the convalescents shooting squirrels, floor hogs, pheasants, and also turkeys through which to make soup for the men." -from the memoirs the Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners took pleasure in the initial benefit of morale: The southern was fighting to preserve its way of life, vice versa, the North was fighting to preserve a union. Slavery did not become a moral reason of the Union effort until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the battle began, many an essential questions were still unanswered. What if the slave says of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and also Delaware had joined the Confederacy? What if brothers or France had pertained to the assist of the South? What if a few decisive early Confederate victories had turned north public opinion versus the war?

Indeed, the north looked much far better on paper. But many determinants undetermined in ~ the outbreak the war might have tilted the balance sheet toward a various outcome.