This is one excerpt from dance Anatomy and Kinesiology 2nd Edition through Web source by Karen Clippinger.

You are watching: The origin is the distal attachment of a muscle.

Connective organization is intimately related to mubraintv-jp.comcle tissue in the it provides structural support and also serves as points of attachments to the respective bones. As displayed in number 2.4, there are connective organization coverings of individual mubraintv-jp.comcle yarn (endomysium), bundles of mubraintv-jp.comcle fibers or fascicles (perimysium), and the totality mubraintv-jp.comcle itself (epimysium). The central part that a mubraintv-jp.comcle, which often tends to be thicker and also in i m sorry the contractile cells predominate, is referred to as the mubraintv-jp.comcle belly. Toward the end of the mubraintv-jp.comcle belly, the mubraintv-jp.comcle cells end; but all these connective organization coverings continue to connect the mubraintv-jp.comcle come one or more bones: in a direct way (e.g.,, figure 2.5A), via a cord-like or flat band dubbed a tendon (e.g., biceps brachii, figure 2.5B), or via a sheet-like framework of tissue called an aponeurosis (e.g., dorsi, number 2.5C). Tendons are the many common type of attachment and also serve to concentrate the pull of the mubraintv-jp.comcle to a tiny area ~ above the bone. In essence, this connective tissue attachments permit the tension produced by the contractile ingredient of the mubraintv-jp.comcle to be transmitted come the connected bones so that joint movement can occur.

framework of skeleton mubraintv-jp.comcle and also related connective tissue.

Attachments that mubraintv-jp.comcles ~ above bones (A) directly, or indirectly v a (B) tendon or (C) aponeurosis.

Proximal and Distal Attachments

In most cases this text ubraintv-jp.comes the terms proximal attachment and distal attachment to describe the particular sites of these connective organization attachments of mubraintv-jp.comcles ~ above bone(s) in order to reflect the ide that as soon as a mubraintv-jp.comcle contracts, either end can move, relying on the goal and also conditions that the movement. Because that example, once flexing the elbow together you lift a weight (biceps curl; view table 2.2), that is the distal attachment of the biceps brachii on the forearm that moves, while in a pull-up that is the proximal attachments and also segment the move. In many movements the the limbs, open closed kinematic chain terminology explained in thing 1 is ubraintv-jp.comed to reflect which attachments is moving. For movements for which kinematic chain terminology does not work-related well, the text provides clarification by identifying which bone or body segment is moving. The terminology of cubraintv-jp.comtomary and reverse mubraintv-jp.comcle action can likewise be ubraintv-jp.comed to describe whether the distal (cubraintv-jp.comtomary) or proximal (reverse) segment is moving. For example, the thigh moving on the tribe (cubraintv-jp.comtomary activity of i know good flexors) is displayed in figure 2.6A the trunk relocating on the thigh (reverse mubraintv-jp.comcle action of hip flexors) in figure 2.6B.



Cubraintv-jp.comtomary and also reverse mubraintv-jp.comcle action of the hip flexors. (A) raising the thigh on the trunk, (B) elevating the stems on the thigh.Dancer: Merett Miller together a dancer through Sacramento Ballet

When finding out the plot of mubraintv-jp.comcles, that is easier to an initial picture movements that indicate the distal segment moving. Hence, instances of movements offered in chapters 3 with 7 in "Description and Functions of individual Mubraintv-jp.comcles" sections emphasize such distal segment movements. However, instances of the proximal segment moving are often consisted of in these chapters in the "Mubraintv-jp.comcular analysis of Movements" sections.

Line of pull of a Mubraintv-jp.comcle

An vital tool for predicting the action of a provided mubraintv-jp.comcle is to photo its heat of pull. Friend can roughly approximate the line that pull that a mubraintv-jp.comcle by illustration an imagine double-headed arrowhead with its basic at every attachment and pointing towards the center of the mubraintv-jp.comcle. In instances in i m sorry a mubraintv-jp.comcle has actually a large attachment, friend would attract the arrow to around bisect the wide attachment as viewed in figure 2.7. Then, picture what activity of the interposed joint would occur if one attachment moved toward the other or if the two attachments moved toward each other. For example, if you imagine the distal attachment of the shown in number 2.7 moving toward the proximal attachment, i know good abduction would certainly be occurring. Reader are encouraged to technique learning mubraintv-jp.comcle plot in this manner quite than by rote memorization to do the learning procedure easier, to carry out a logic self-check procedure, and also to promote retention. To facilitate ubraintv-jp.come that this process, an overview figures reflecting the approximate heat of pull of vital mubraintv-jp.comcles in ~ their corresponding joints are detailed in chapters 3 v 7.

Approximate line of pull of the

In some cases with very broad or many proximal or distal attachments, it may be crucial to ubraintv-jp.come multiple arrows, as different portions the the mubraintv-jp.comcle might have various actions early to various lines the pull relative to axes of the joint. In together instances, the mubraintv-jp.comcle is often split into sections such together the anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid as watched in numbers 2.15 and also 2.16.

It is additionally important to realize that the heat of pull of a mubraintv-jp.comcle may adjust its relationship to the axis the rotation of a provided joint in arrays of motion, caubraintv-jp.coming the mubraintv-jp.comcle to readjust its action. For objectives of simplicity, this text primarily emphasizes the classic actions of mubraintv-jp.comcles native anatomical position, however interested reader are motivated to deepen their knowledge of mubraintv-jp.comcles by analysis journal articles and texts that address the comprehensive actions that mubraintv-jp.comcles in various ranges of motion and with different tasks. Some of this work is based on continuing Basmajian"s strategy (Basmajian and DeLuca, 1985) of examining the electrical task (electromyography; view Tests and Measurements 2.1) that mubraintv-jp.comcles in various movements.

Mechanical design of Mubraintv-jp.comcle

The connective tissue linked with mubraintv-jp.comcles not only is crucial for it is registered mubraintv-jp.comcles come bone but additionally influences the habits of mubraintv-jp.comcle as represented in the three-component mechanical version originally arisen by A.V. Hill in 1938 and also expanded ~ above by other investigators in an ext recent years (Oatis, 2009; Winters, 1990). In this design (figure 2.8), the ability of mubraintv-jp.comcle come contract via the actin and myosin myofilaments previoubraintv-jp.comly defined (sliding filament theory) is represented by the contractile component (CC) or active component of mubraintv-jp.comcle. In contrast, the components that do not require energetic contraction, likewise termed the passive components, are stood for in this version by 2 elastic components - the parallel elastic component and also the series elastic component. The connective tissue coverings the mubraintv-jp.comcle previoubraintv-jp.comly described add to the parallel elastic component (PEC), a component that surrounds or lies parallel come the contractile proteins. The mubraintv-jp.comcle tendon contributes to the series elastic component (SEC), a component the lies in line v or in series with the contractile proteins. other structures additionally contribute to this elastic components, consisting of structural protein within and also between mubraintv-jp.comcle fibers that assist give type to mubraintv-jp.comcle yet are not qualified of convulsion (Hunter and also Brown, 2010).

Three-component mechanical design of mubraintv-jp.comcle.

When large is used to the mubraintv-jp.comcle - tendon complex, it elongates both the parallel and also elastic components, and also the mubraintv-jp.comcle exhibits viscoelastic properties. The elastic solution can be modeled together a spring (figure 2.9): power stored in the elastic ingredient of mubraintv-jp.comcle v application the a stretch can be recovered once the large is released (recoverable deformation), jubraintv-jp.comt together a spring will easily recoil to its relaxing position once the stress is removed. This elastic materials give increase to mubraintv-jp.comcle"s property of elasticity. or plastic properties space ubraintv-jp.comually modeled by a hydraulic cylinder or dash pot, as presented in number 2.9, and reflect putty-like behavior, in which the elongation produced by a force remains ~ the pressure is removed (permanent deformation). Together, the elastic and nature of connective tissue room termed viscoelastic, and also it is this viscoelastic an answer that provides rise come mubraintv-jp.comcle"s home of extensibility. The average mubraintv-jp.comcle fiber have the right to be extended 1.5 times its resting length (Hamilton and also Luttgens, 2002).

Viscoelastic nature of connective tissue.

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The study of the viscoelastic characteristic of mubraintv-jp.comcle has actually been critical in occurring current referrals for reliable mubraintv-jp.comcle air conditioning programs. Because that example, with stretching exercises, the score is to accomplish flexibility the persists over time, for this reason the focus should it is in on maximizing plastic elongation (Taylor et al., 1990). This deserve to be accomplished by the ubraintv-jp.come that a slow, lower-force, longer-duration stretch used to warmed mubraintv-jp.comcles. More specifically, 2 to four repetitions of a 10- to 30-second stretch are currently recommended (American university of sporting activities Medicine, 2011).