When zinc steel is submerged right into a quantity of aqueous \(\ceHCl\), the adhering to reaction occurs (Figure \(\PageIndex1\)):

\<\ceZn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → H2 (g) + ZnCl2(aq) \labeleq:1\>

This is one instance of what is sometimes referred to as a single replacement reaction because \(\ceZn\) replaces \(\ceH\) in combination with \(\ceCl\).

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Example \(\PageIndex1\): Reducing silver- Ions

Write and also balance the redox reaction that has actually silver ions and aluminum steel as reactants and silver metal and also aluminum ion as products. Determine the substance oxidized, problem reduced, reduce agent and also reducing agent.


We begin by using icons of the elements and ions to stand for the reaction:

\<\ceAg^+ + Al → Ag + Al^3+ \nonumber\>

The equation looks balanced as it is written. However, as soon as we to compare the in its entirety charges on each side of the equation, we discover a charge of +1 on the left yet a fee of +3 on the right. This equation is not effectively balanced. To balance it, let us write the two half reactions. Silver- ions room reduced, and also it bring away one electron to readjust Ag+ to Ag:

Reduction half-reaction: \<\ceAg^+ + e^− → Ag \nonumber\>

Aluminum is oxidized, losing three electrons to adjust from Al to Al3+:

Oxidation half-reaction: \<\ceAl → Al^3+ + 3e^− \nonumber\>

To incorporate these two half reactions and also cancel the end all the electrons, we have to multiply the silver reduction reaction by 3:


Exercise \(\PageIndex1\)

Write and also balance the oxidation reaction that has actually calcium ions and potassium metal as reactants and calcium metal and potassium ion as products. Determine the substance oxidized, substance reduced, reducing agent and reducing agent.


Reduction: Ca2+ + 2e− → Ca

Oxidation: 2 (K → K+ + e−)

Combined: Ca2+ + 2K → Ca + 2K+

The substance oxidized is the reactant that had actually undergone oxidation: K The substance reduced is the reactant that had undergone reduction: Ca2+ The reducing certified dealer is the exact same as the problem oxidized: K The oxidizing agent is the very same as the problem reduced: Ca2+

Potassium has been supplied as a reducing certified dealer to achieve various steels in their elemental form.

To her Health: oxidization Reactions and Pacemaker Batteries

All batteries use redox reactions to it is provided electricity due to the fact that electricity is basically a stream of electron being moved from one substance to another. Pacemakers—surgically implanted gadgets for regulation a person’s heartbeat—are it is provided by small batteries, for this reason the suitable operation the a pacemaker depends on a redox reaction.

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Pacemakers provided to be powered by NiCad batteries, in i m sorry nickel and cadmium (hence the surname of the battery) react through water according to this oxidation reaction:

\<\ceCd(s) + 2NiOOH(s) + 2H2O(ℓ) → Cd(OH)2(s) + 2Ni(OH) 2(s) \nonumber\>

The cadmium is oxidized, when the nickel atoms in NiOOH room reduced. Except for the water, every the substances in this reaction space solids, allowing NiCad batteries to be recharged hundreds of times prior to they protect against operating. Unfortunately, NiCad battery are relatively heavy batteries to it is in carrying approximately in a pacemaker. Today, the lighter lithium/iodine battery is used instead. The iodine is dissolved in a solid polymer support, and the all at once redox reaction is together follows:

\<\ce2Li(s) + I2(s) → 2LiI (s) \nonumber\>

Lithium is oxidized, and also iodine is reduced. Although the lithium/iodine battery cannot be recharged, one of its benefits is that it lasts up to 10 years. Thus, a human with a pacemaker walk not need to worry around periodic recharging; around once per decade a human being requires minor surgical procedure to change the pacemaker/battery unit. Lithium/iodine batteries are additionally used to strength calculators and watches.

Figure \(\PageIndex1\): A little button battery favor this is provided to power a watch, pacemaker, or calculator. (CC BY-SA; Gerhard H Wrodnigg via Wikipedia)