The debt ratio and the same multiplier are two balance paper ratios that measure a company's indebtedness. Uncover out what lock mean and how to calculate them.

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When you desire to acquire an idea that a company"s jae won condition, ratio evaluation is one of the devices of the trade. In the complying with article, you"ll learn about two helpful balance sheet ratios: the blame ratio and also the equity multiplier, and also you"ll discover the relationship in between the two and how to calculate one using the other.

Companies finance your assets with two means: Debt and also equity. Let"s imagine agency A has assets totaling $300,000 the is has actually financed issuing $200,000 worth of debt and $100,000 the equity:


Calculating the debt ratioThe debt proportion is the proportion of a company"s assets that is financed with debt:

Debt ratio = total debt / full assets

The an ext debt the firm carries family member to the size of that balance sheet, the greater the blame ratio. Total debt can not be negative, nor deserve to it be greater than full assets (ignoring situations of an unfavorable equity), thus the debt ratio need to be in between 0% and 100% (the debt proportion is generally expressed as a percentage).

In the situation of agency A, us obtain:

Debt proportion = ( $200,000 / $300,000 ) = 2/3 ≈ 67%

Two-thirds the the firm A"s assets space financed v debt, through the remainder financed through equity.

Calculating the same multiplierThe same multiplier, top top the other hand, relates the dimension of the balance sheet (i.e. Complete assets) to the amount of same ; in various other words, it measures the factor through which the company"s equity has been leveraged:

Equity multiplier = full assets / complete equity

The better the same multiplier, the higher the amount of leverage.

For firm A, we obtain:

Equity multiplier = ( $300,000 / $100,000 ) = 3.0 times

How to calculation the debt proportion using the equity multiplier (and vice-versa)The blame ratio and the equity multiplier are attached by the complying with formula:

Debt proportion = 1- ( 1 / equity multiplier )

Let"s verify the formula for agency A:

Debt proportion = 1-( 1 / 3 ) = 2 / 3 ≈ 67%, which is specifically the an outcome we discovered above.

If you desire to know exactly how the formula linking the debt proportion was derived, it"s very straightforward making use of some straightforward algebra. If you"re interested, you can uncover the source at the bottom the the article.

Examples: apologize Inc. And Cheseapeake energy Corporation

Below is the pertinent balance paper data taken right from Apple Inc"s many recent quarterly report:


Source: Apple, push release




Equity multiplier

$293,284/ $128,267 = 2.29 x

Debt ratio

$165,017/ $293,284 = 56.3%

Given the dimension of the operation cash operation Apple generates and the quality of that is business, Apple"s use of blame is conservative and its same multiplier reflect this.

Next, we have actually Chesapeake Energy"s condensed balance sheet, taken native its many recent quarterly report:

Source: Chesapeake energy Corporation push release

We"re ready to run the numbers:



Chesapeake Energy

Equity multiplier

2.29 x

$17,357/ $$2,397 = 7.2 x

Debt ratio


$14,960/ $17,357 = 86.2%

Chesapeake power is no Apple! Its higher ratios reflect a very far-reaching use the debt, and also given Chesapeake Energy"s exposure to commodities prices, this is a really different proposition in terms of the business" financial risk.

Extra credit: Deriving the equation linking the blame ratio and also the same multiplier:

Equity multiplier = full assets / total equity

Another means of writing that equation is:

Total equity / complete assets = ( 1 / same multiplier ) (1)

According to the basic equation the accounting:

Total same = full assets-Total debt

If us substitute that into equation (1), we obtain:

( complete assets-Total debt ) / full assets = ( 1 / same multiplier )

Which simplifies to:

1- ( full debt / total assets ) = ( 1 / same multiplier )

Re-arranging the terms:

( total debt / complete assets ) = 1- ( 1 / equity multiplier )

But ( total debt/ total assets ) is nothing other than the debt ratio, so we have our result:

Debt ratio = 1- ( 1 / same multiplier )


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