To define the characteristics of ionic bonding. To quantitatively describe the energetic factors involved in the development of an ionic bond.

You are watching: The attraction between positive and negative ions is known as a(n)


Ions are atoms or molecules which are electrically charged. Cations are positively charged and anions lug an adverse charge. Ions develop as soon as atoms obtain or shed electrons. Because electrons are negatively charged, an atom that loses one or even more electrons will come to be positively charged; an atom that gains one or more electrons becomes negatively charged. Ionic bonding is the attraction in between positively- and also negatively-charged ions. These oppositely charged ions entice each other to form ionic networks (or lattices). Electrostatics explains why this happens: oppowebsite charges attract and favor charges repel. When many kind of ions attract each other, they develop large, ordered, crystal lattices in which each ion is surrounded by ions of the opposite charge. Typically, as soon as steels react via non-metals, electrons are transferred from the metals to the non-steels. The steels form positively-charged ions and also the non-steels create negatively-charged ions.


Generating Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonds create as soon as metals and non-metals ubraintv-jp.comically react. By interpretation, a metal is relatively secure if it loses electrons to form a complete valence shell and also becomes positively charged. Likewise, a non-metal becomes stable by acquiring electrons to complete its valence shell and also become negatively charged. When steels and also non-steels react, the metals lose electrons by carrying them to the non-metals, which get them. Consequently, ions are created, which instantly entice each other—ionic bonding.

In the as a whole ionic compound, positive and negative charges should be well balanced, because electrons cannot be created or ruined, only moved. Thus, the complete number of electrons shed by the cationic species have to equal the total variety of electrons got by the anionic species.


Example (PageIndex1): Sodium Chloride

For instance, in the reaction of Na (sodium) and also Cl (chlorine), each Cl atom takes one electron from a Na atom. Because of this each Na becomes a Na+ cation and also each Cl atom becomes a Cl- anion. Due to their opposite charges, they lure each various other to create an ionic lattice. The formula (proportion of positive to negative ions) in the lattice is (ceNaCl).

These ions are arranged in solid NaCl in a regular three-dimensional arrangement (or lattice):

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NaCl lattice. (left) 3-D structure and (right) simple 2D slice through lattes. Imperiods used with permission from Wikipedia and also Mike Blaber.

The chlorine has actually a high affinity for electrons, and also the sodium has a low ionization power. Therefore the chlorine gains an electron from the sodium atom. This can be stood for utilizing ewis dot symbols (below we will consider one chlorine atom, fairly than Cl2):

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, the power of the electrostatic attraction ((E)) between 2 charged pwrite-ups is proportional to the magnitude of the charges and also inversely proportional to the internuclear distance between the pwrite-ups ((r)):

< E = kdfracQ_1Q_2r labelEq1b >

where each ion’s charge is represented by the symbol Q. The proportionality consistent k is equal to 2.31 × 10−28 J·m. This worth of k has the charge of a solitary electron (1.6022 × 10−19 C) for each ion. The equation have the right to likewise be created using the charge of each ion, expressed in coulombs (C), integrated in the continuous. In this instance, the proportionality continuous, k, equates to 8.999 × 109 J·m/C2. In the example given, Q1 = +1(1.6022 × 10−19 C) and also Q2 = −1(1.6022 × 10−19 C). If Q1 and Q2 have oppowebsite indications (as in NaCl, for instance, where Q1 is +1 for Na+ and also Q2 is −1 for Cl−), then E is negative, which suggests that power is released when oppositely charged ions are lugged together from an limitless distance to form an isolated ion pair.

Energy is always released when a bond is formed and also correspondingly, it always requires power to break a bond.

As displayed by the green curve in the reduced half of Figure (PageIndex1), the maximum energy would certainly be released once the ions are infinitely cshed to each other, at r = 0. Because ions occupy area and also have actually a structure with the positive nucleus being surrounded by electrons, yet, they cannot be infinitely close together. At exceptionally short distances, repulsive electron–electron interactions in between electrons on nearby ions end up being stronger than the attractive interactions in between ions via opposite charges, as shown by the red curve in the upper half of Figure (PageIndex1). The total energy of the device is a balance between the attractive and also repulsive interactions. The purple curve in Figure (PageIndex1) shows that the full energy of the device reaches a minimum at r0, the allude wbelow the electrostatic repulsions and also attractions are specifically balanced. This distance is the exact same as the experimentally measured bond distance.

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Figure (PageIndex1): A Plot of Potential Energy versus Internuclear Distance for the Interactivity between a Gaseous Na+ Ion and also a Gaseous Cl− Ion. The energy of the mechanism reaches a minimum at a certain distance (r0) once the attractive and repulsive interactions are balanced.

Consider the power released when a gaseous (Na^+) ion and also a gaseous (Cl^-) ion are brought together from r = ∞ to r = r0. Given that the observed gas-phase internuclear distance is 236 pm, the power adjust connected via the development of an ion pair from an (Na^+_(g)) ion and also a (Cl^-_(g)) ion is as follows:

< eginalign* E &= kdfracQ_1Q_2r_0 \<4pt> &= (2.31 imes 10^ - 28 mJcdot cancelm ) left( dfrac( + 1)( - 1)236; cancelpm imes 10^ - 12 cancelm/pm ight) \<4pt> &= - 9.79 imes 10^ - 19; J/ion; pair labelEq2 endalign*>

The negative worth shows that power is released. Our convention is that if a ubraintv-jp.comical process gives energy to the outside people, the energy adjust is negative. If it calls for energy, the power change is positive. To calculate the energy adjust in the development of a mole of NaCl pairs, we must multiply the power per ion pair by Avogadro’s number:

< E=left ( -9.79 imes 10^ - 19; J/ cancelion pair est )left ( 6.022 imes 10^ 23; cancelion; pair/molappropriate )=-589; kJ/mol labelEq3 >

This is the energy released once 1 mol of gaseous ion pairs is developed, not as soon as 1 mol of positive and also negative ions condenses to develop a crystalline lattice. Because of long-array interactions in the lattice framework, this energy does not correspond straight to the lattice power of the crystalline solid. However, the large negative worth shows that bringing positive and also negative ions together is energetically extremely favorable, whether an ion pair or a crystalline lattice is developed.

We summarize the important points around ionic bonding:

At r0, the ions are more stable (have actually a lower potential energy) than they are at an limitless internuclear distance. When oppositely charged ions are carried together from r = ∞ to r = r0, the energy of the device is lowered (power is released). Since of the low potential energy at r0, power need to be added to the device to separate the ions. The amount of power needed is the bond power. The energy of the device reaches a minimum at a specific internuclear distance (the bond distance).

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Exercise (PageIndex2): Magnesium oxide

Calculate the amount of power released once 1 mol of gaseous (ceMgO) ion pairs is formed from the separated ions. The internuclear distance in the gas phase is 175 pm.