Suffixes room morphemes (specific teams of letters with specific semantic meaning) that are included onto the finish of source words to readjust their meaning. Suffixes are one of the two primary kinds of affixes—the other kind is prefixes, which come at the start of a source word.
There is a huge selection of suffixes in English, which deserve to be generally categorized as either inflectional or derivational. Suffixes are provided to change the grammatical duty of an present word. Sometimes this readjust is minor, with words retaining the basic an interpretation and word class (part that speech) however conforming to the grammatical rules required by the framework of the sentence; these are known as inflectional suffixes. An ext often, the enhancement of a suffix outcomes in the development of a word that is in a totally different class and shares a definition similar to the original root word; this are referred to as derivational suffixes.
Inflection refers to the changing of a word’s spelling follow to the grammatical framework of a sentence. This is often achieved by including a particular suffix ~ above the end of a source word. These muco suffixes room only supplied to modify the grammatical an interpretation of a word; they carry out not readjust a word native one component of decided to another, nor carry out they change the fundamental an interpretation of the word. For example, the suffix “-s” is provided with many nouns to indicate that they space plural (i.e., more than one), as in boys and also girls. The simple meanings of the source words boy and also girl carry out not change; they’ve merely been inflected to present that the speaker is talk about more than one. Inflectional suffixes can be used with nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. The tables below show every one of the inflectional suffixes offered with these parts of speech, as well as examples that each.
Inflectional suffix of Nouns
Suffix Grammatical Function Example Words “-s” Changes many nouns indigenous singular to plural. bank→banks car→cars pizza→pizzas toy→toys wire→wires “-es” Forms the plural because that nouns ending in a sibilant sound (/s/, /z/, /ʧ/, or /ʃ/) as created by the endings “-ss,” “-z,” “-x,” “-sh,” “-ch,” or “-tch.” coach→coaches watch→watches dish→dishes box→boxes bus→buses kiss→two kisses waltz→waltzes “-en” Changes particular irregular nouns* from singular come plural. ox→oxen child→children brother→brethren (*There are countless irregular plural creates of noun that do not adhere come any specific spelling pattern. Come learn much more about these and other rules because that making nouns plural, check out the ar on creating Plurals.)
Inflectional suffixes of Verbs
Suffix Grammatical Function Example Words “-s” Forms the third-person singular for most verbs. hear→hears run→runs think→thinks write→writes “-es” Forms the third-person singular because that verbs ending in a sibilant sound (/s/, /z/, /ʧ/, or /ʃ/) developed by the end “-ss,” “-z,” “-x,” “-sh,” “-ch,” or “-tch,” and verbs finishing in a consonant + O. approach→approaches catch→catches do→does go→goes hush→hushes pass→passes quiz→quizzes “-ed” Forms the past an easy tense and past participle of many verbs. ask→asked burn→burned dare→dared hope→hoped open→opened talk→talked walk→walked “-en” Forms the previous participle of part irregular verbs. be→been drive→driven eat→eaten give→given got→gotten sink→sunken write→written “-ing” Forms the existing participle and also gerund of verbs. build→building care→caring hear→hearing pass→passing read→reading see→seeing wear→wearing
Inflectional suffix of Adjectives and Adverbs
Suffix Grammatical Function Example Words “-er” Forms the comparative degree for many adjectives and adverbs. big→bigger fast→faster* happy→happier high→higher* sad→sadder slow→slower* “-est” Forms the superlative degree for numerous adjectives and also adverbs. big→biggest fast→fastest* happy→happiest high→highest* sad→saddest slow→slowest* (*These words role either together adjectives or adverbs, depending on their use. Those there is no an asterisk only function as adjectives.)
Unlike inflectional suffixes, derivational suffixes create a new—though related—meaning in words that’s formed. In countless cases, the word created by the addition of a derivative suffix will belong come a totally different component of decided (or word class). Suffix that reason a change in word class are sometimes referred to as class-changing suffixes. There room many, many derivational suffixes provided in English—too many to perform here. We’ll simply look at those most generally encountered in day-to-day writing and also speech. It’s necessary to note that countless words in modern English function suffixes provided with Latin, Old English, or foreign-language roots. For the benefits of simplicity, we’ll greatly be concentrating on examples of root that have the right to stand alone together words (with a few notable exceptions).
Suffixes that kind nouns
Derivational suffix that create nouns many often affix to verbs and (to a lesser degree) adjectives. However, number of noun suffixes are additionally class-maintaining, meaning they type new noun from various other existing nouns. Fine look at some of these a small later. Suffix Suffix meaning Attaches to Example words “-age” An action, process, or the result; a thing or location used for such an action. verbs (Often a class-maintaining suffix, together we’ll watch later.) append→appendage block→blockage cover→coverage dote→dotage haul→haulage pack→package seep→seepage shrink→shrinkage store→storage use→usage wreck→wreckage “-al” An activity or process. verbs approve→approval betray→betrayal bury→burial deny→denial dispose→disposal propose→proposal renew→renewal reverse→reversal “-ance” An action, process, state, condition, or quality. verbs most adjectives ending in “-ant” appear→appearance arrogant→arrogance brilliant→brilliance comply→compliance deliver→deliverance endure→endurance fragrant→fragrance ignorant→ignorance perform→performance reluctant→reluctance tolerate→tolerance “-dom” A state or condition. adjectives (More frequently a class-maintaining suffix, as we’ll watch later.) bored→boredom free→freedom wise→wisdom “-ee” A human or point receiving the effect of an action; less commonly, a human or thing managing or performing a passive action. verbs absent→absentee address→addressee devote→devotee employ→employee interview→interviewee nominate→nominee train→trainee trust→trustee “-ence” An action, process, state, condition, or quality. verbs most adjectives ending in “-ent” absent→absence cohere→coherence defer→deference evident→evidence exist→existence intelligent→intelligence lenient→lenience occur→occurrence patient→patience persist→persistence revere→reverence silent→silence transfer→transference “-er” A human being or thing performing or qualified of a specific action. verbs bake→baker compose→composer cook→cooker defend→defender employ→employer interview→interviewer keep→keeper teach→teacher write→writer “-ery” The act, process, or practice of doing something, or a location for such. verbs bake→bakery bribe→bribery debauch→debauchery distill→distillery hatch→hatchery mock→mockery rob→robbery trick→trickery “-ication” A state, condition, action, process, or practice, or the an outcome thereof. verbs ending in “-fy” amplify→amplification clarify→clarification dignify→dignification falsify→falsifiication glorify→glorification identify→identification justify→justification modify→modification quantify→quantification simplify→simplification unify→unification “-ism” 1. An action, process, or practice. 2. A state, condition, or quality. 3. A doctrine, theory, or set of guiding principles. 1. Verbs 2 & 3. Adjectives active→activism antagonize→antagonism baptize→baptism criticize→criticism colloquial→colloquialism exorcize→exorciism feminine→feminism liberal→liberalism metabolize→metabolism modern→modernism pacific→pacifism “-ist” One that performs a particular action, process, or practice. verbs (More frequently a class-maintaining suffix, together we’ll check out later.) antagonize→antagonist cycle→cyclist exorcize→exorcicist lobby→lobbyist theorize→theorist “-(i)ty” (The i is dropped if the coming before vowel sound is or becomes unstressed.) A state, condition, trait, or quality. adjectives able→ability certain→certainty cruel→cruelty dual→duality equal→equality feminine→femininity frail→frailty hilarious→hilarity masculine→masculinity mature→maturity plural→plurality pure→purity secure→security “-ment” An action or process, or the an outcome thereof. verbs adjust→adjustment bereave→bereavement contain→containment disappoint→disappointment employ→employment fulfill→fulfillment judge→judgment move→movement place→placement resent→resentment treat→treatment “-ness” A state, condition, trait, or measure thereof. adjectives alert→alertness cold→coldness dark→darkness exact→exactness fierce→fierceness happy→happiness kind→kindness like→likeness selfish→selfishness useful→usefulness “-or” A person or thing managing or performing one action. verbs act→actor communicate→communicator direct→director educate→educator invest→investor profess→professor sail→sailor survive→survivor translate→translator “-sion” A state, condition, action, process, or practice, or the result thereof. verbs admit→admission allude→allusion compel→compulsion convert→conversion decide→decision divert→diversion emit→emission extend→extension impress→impression invade→invasion invert→inversion obsess→obsession propel→propulsion seclude→seclusion suspend→suspension transmit→transmission “-tion” A state, condition, action, process, or practice, or the an outcome thereof. verbs act→action affect→affection communicate→communication complete→completion direct→direction educate→education evolve→evolution inscribe→inscription interrupt→interruption misconceive→misconception resolve→resolution subscribe→subscription translate→translation Nouns formed from various other nouns As we mentioned already, many suffixes attach to existing noun to create one more noun v a new meaning. Because the words stay nouns, these suffix are known as class-maintaining suffixes. (We looked at some of these already—they deserve to be either class maintaining or course changing, relying on the root word the the suffix attaches to.) Here are some of the many common: Suffix Suffix meaning Example words “-age” 1. A collection or group; a fixed or amount. 2. A status, relationship, or connection. 3. A problem or state the being. 4. A place of residence. 4. A rate or measure up of. acre→acreage bag→baggage baron→baronage bond→bondage cube→cubage floor→floorage foot→footage front→frontage hermit→hermitage mile→mileage orphan→orphanage pasture→pasturage percent→percentage sewer→sewerage vicar→vicarage watt→wattage “-(e)ry” (The e is usually dropped if the preceding vowel sound is or becomes unstressed.) 1. A group, collection, category, or course of things. 2. A state or condition of being. 3. The characteristic qualities, actions, or behavior. 4. A exercise or occupation. ancestor→ancestry buffoon→buffoonery circuit→circuitry crock→crockery dentist→dentistry image→imagery peasant→peasantry pedant→pedantry prude→prudery scene→scenery snob→snobbery zealot→zealotry “-ist” 1. One that produces, practices, plays, operates, or is otherwise associated to a details thing or activity. 2. One who complies with or adheres come a certain doctrine, theory, or collection of guiding principles. 3. One who specializes in a certain field that study. activism→activist anthropology→anthropologist art→artist bass→bassist biology→biologist Calvinism→Calvinist capitalism→capitalist feminism→feminist guitar→guitarist modernism→modernist novel→novelist pacifism→pacifist pharmacy→pharmacist piano→pianist psychiatry→psychiatrist racism→racist romanticism→romanticist science→scientist zoology→zoologist “-dom” 1. A state, quality, or condition. 2. A stated domain or jurisdiction. 3. A particular rank or position. duke→dukedom earl→earldom chief→chiefdom Christian→Christendom fan→fandom king→kingdom martyr→martyrdom prince→princedom star→stardom “-hood” 1. A state, quality, or condition. 2. A group sharing a state, quality, or condition. adult→adulthood boy→boyhood brother→brotherhood child→childhood father→fatherhood girl→girlhood knight→knighthood man→manhood mother→motherhood parent→parenthood sister→sisterhood woman→womanhood “-ship” 1. A state, quality, or condition. 2. A certain rank, status, or position, or the time spent in such a position. 3. Skill, craft, or artistry to work in a certain profession or practice. apprentice→apprenticeship champion→championship citizen→citizenship craftsman→craftsmanship dealer→dealership dean→deanship friend→friendship leader→leadership penman→penmanship professor→professorship scholar→scholarship sponsor→sponsorship workman→workmanship “-(o)logy” Another typical suffix used to kind nouns is the ending “-logy” (or “-ology” as soon as following specific consonant sounds), i beg your pardon produces the meaning “a branch or field of knowledge, science, theory, or study.” This suffix generally does not affix to pre-existing English roots; instead, it an ext often connects to Greek or Latin roots. Because that example: Root Root Meaning + -(o)logy New Meaning astro- star, celestial body, or outer space astrology Originally an interpretation “the scientific research of the heavenly bodies,” astrology currently refers come the research of the positions and also motions the planets, stars, and also the moon in the id that lock influence person decisions and characteristics. bio- life biology The science of life and living animals. cardio- pertaining to the heart cardiology The scientific study of the structures, functions, and disorders that the heart. geo- earth (generally) or earth (specifically) geology The clinical study that the origin and structures that the Earth. ideo- of or pertaining come ideas ideology A set of doctrines or beliefs that are held by an individual or mutual by members the a social group. neuro- of or pertaining come a nerve or the worried system neurology The scientific study the the structures, functions, and disorders that the worried system. psych- mind, spirit, soul psychology The science and study that mental and also behavioral processes. theo- God or gods theology The study of the divine and also of religious truths. zoo-* animal, living being zoology The research of animals, including their physiology, development, and classification. (*The source zoo- is a combining type derived from the Greek indigenous zoion. The English indigenous zoo is in reality a shortening that the ax zoological garden.) Because the definition of “-(o)logy” is so fine established, that is periodically attached come existing English words come create new terms that follow the pattern developed by the Greek and also Latin roots. For instance: anesthesia→anesthesiologyclimate→climatologycriminal→criminologyicon→iconologymusic→musicologyradiation→radiologyreflex→reflexology However, this mix is much less typical than the usage of Greek or Latin roots.
Suffixes that kind verbs
Derivational suffixes that develop verbs affix to nouns and also adjectives. Suffix Suffix meaning Attaches to Example words “-en” 1. To come to be or cause to become. 2. Come come or cause to have. 1. Adjectives 2. Nouns black→blacken broad→broaden cheap→cheapen fright→frighten hard→harden heart→hearten length→lengthen red→redden sharp→sharpen sick→sicken strength→strengthen “-ify” To do or cause to become. adjectives, nouns ample→amplify beauty→beautify clear→clarify diverse→diversify dignity→dignify glory→glorify just→justify pure→purify null→nullify simple→simplify type→typify “-ize” To end up being or reason to become; to perform or make the to i beg your pardon the suffix is attached. adjectives, nouns accessory→accessorize apology→apologize capital→capitalize civil→civilize economy→economize empathy→empathize fertile→fertilize industrial→industrialize legal→legalize human→humanize standard→standardize theory→theorize union→unionize “-ise” vs. “-ize” In American English, the suffix “-ize” is offered to adjust nouns and adjectives into verbs, together we have just seen, and also it likewise appears in verbs that execute not have standalone root words. British English, however, predominantly offers the synonymous suffix “-ise.” For more information ~ above this distinction in spelling, go to the ar on American English vs. Brothers English. “-ate” There is additionally another common suffix that outcomes in the production of verbs: “-ate.” However, while this finishing does occasionally connect to pre-existing noun or adjectives (meaning “to action on, cause to end up being or be modified, or furnish with”), the is much much more likely to appear in verbs that come indigenous the previous participles the Latin verbs. Even many words the look like they come straight from nouns or adjectives space in fact obtained from Latin. Because that example: Formed native nouns and adjectives Formed from Latin verbs active→activate caffeine→caffeinate caliber→calibrate hyphen→hyphenate pollen→pollinate abbreviate→from Latin abbreviatus accentuate→from Latin accentuatus circulate→from Latin circulatus domesticate→from Latin domesticatus duplicate→from Latin duplicatus educate→from Latin educatus elongate→from Latin elongatus habituate→from Latin habituatus insulate→from Latin insulatus migrate→from Latin migratus notate→from Latin notatus separate→from Latin separatus translate→from Latin translatus
Suffixes that form adjectives
Derivational suffix that develop adjectives usually attach to nouns. Much much less often, they attach to verbs. Suffix Suffix meaning Attaches to Example words “-able” Possible; capable of; perfect for. verbs adore→adorable break→breakable debate→debatable do→doable excite→excitable live→livable manage→manageable read→readable stop→stoppable “-al” Having the attributes of or relating to. nouns artifice→artificial bride→bridal brute→brutal center→central emotion→emotional form→formal logic→logical music→musical politics→political space→spatial tide→tidal “-en” Made the or resembling. nouns ash→ashen earth→earthen flax→flaxen gold→golden lead→leaden wax→waxen wood→wooden “-ful” 1. Full of; identified by. 2. Tending or maybe to. 1. Nouns 2. Verbs beauty→beautiful care→careful delight→delightful forget→forgetful grace→graceful joy→joyful law→lawful mourn→mournful play→playful respect→respectful waste→wasteful “-ible” Possible; qualified of; suitable for. verbs access→accessible collapse→collapsible digest→digestible divide→divisible eat→edible flex→flexible omit→omissible perceive→perceptible receive→receptible sense→sensible suggest→suggestible “-ic” Having the qualities of or relating to. nouns acid→acidic base→basic comedy→comedic galaxy→galactic hero→heroic irony→ironic magnet→magnetic myth→mythic nostalgia→nostalgic poetry→poetic rhythm→rhythmic system→systemic “-ical” Having the characteristics of or relating to. nouns acid→atomical biology→biological comedy→comical history→historical myth→mythical philosophy→philosophical type→typical whimsy→whimsical “-ish” 1. Typical of, comparable to, or associated to. 2. That or linked with (a details nationality, region, or language). 3. Inclined come or preoccupied with. nouns book→bookish boy→boyish Britain→British child→childish clown→clownish Denmark→Danish fiend→fiendish girl→girlish nightmare→nightmarish prude→prudish self→selfish Spain→Spanish Sweden→Swedish “-less” Lacking; deprived of; without. nouns aim→aimless blame→blameless color→colorless doubt→doubtless home→homeless hope→hopeless limit→limitless need→needless point→pointless rest→restless self→selfless time→timeless use→useless “-ly” 1. Comparable to or properties of. 2. Arising at such intervals the time. nouns brother→brotherly coward→cowardly day→daily elder→elderly friend→friendly heaven→heavenly hour→hourly like→likely love→lovely month→monthly miser→miserly order→orderly scholar→scholarly year→yearly “-ous” Possessing; identified by; full of. nouns advantage→advantageous caution→cautious disaster→disastrous fame→famous glamor→glamorous joy→joyous malice→malicious nutrition→nutritious religion→religious pretense→pretentious poison→poisonous suspicion→suspicious “-y” 1. Identified by; consisting or having the top quality of; filled with. 2. Tending or lean to. 1. Nouns 2. Verbs bulk→bulky class→classy dream→dreamy ease→easy leak→leaky mess→messy rain→rainy rope→ropy shine→shiny smell→smelly wimp→wimpy
Suffixes that kind adverbs
By much the many common and well-known suffix that creates adverb by attaching to adjectives is “-ly.” However, there room two others derivational suffixes that type adverbs: “-ways/-wise” and “-ward.” Suffix Suffix meaning Attaches to Example words “-ly” 1. In a certain or specified manner. 2. At the interval the time. 1. Adjectives 2. Noun (units of time) abrupt→abruptly artistic→artistically calm→calmly day→daily daring→daringly double→doubly easy→easily extreme→extremely full→fully happy→happily hour→hourly lucky→luckily majestic→majestically month→monthly practical→practically probable→probably quiet→quietly right→rightly smart→smartly true→truly whole→wholly year→yearly “-ways/-wise” (“-wise” is much more common, particularly in American English, except with the source side, which practically always i do not care sideways) 1. In a stated manner, direction, or position. 2. With referral or in for to. (sometimes hyphenated) nouns, adjectives clock→clockwise business→businesswise edge→edgewise (occasionally: edgeways) health→health-wise length→lengthwise (occasionally: lengthways) like→likewise other→otherwise side→sideways weather→weather-wise “-ward” In a stated direction or position. nouns, adjectives, adverbs back→backward down→downward east→eastward fore→forward front→frontward home→homeward north→northward on→onward south→southward to→toward west→westward
Finally, it’s worth pointing out how the assignment of countless words becomes slightly altered when a suffix is added. Also though these transforms can at time seem haphazard, there space actually several guidelines we deserve to follow to determine just how a word’s spelling might readjust if a suffix is added. Walk to the ar on spelling Conventions v Suffixes to learn more. Quiz
1. Suffixes room attached to which part of a root word?
a) The beginningb) The middlec) The endd) every one of the above
2. What kind of suffix just affects the grammatical duty of a root word?
a) derivative b) inflectional c) Class-maintaining d) Class-changing
3. I beg your pardon of the adhering to is the role of a class-changing suffix?
a) changing the fundamental definition of the source wordb) changing the component of speech of the source wordc) changing the grammatical function of the root wordd) A & Be) B & C
4. What component of speech is created by including the suffix “-ness”?
a) Nounb) Verbc) Adjectived) Adverb
5. What component of speech is formed by adding the suffix “-ize”?
a) Nounb) Verbc) Adjectived) Adverb
6. What part of speech is formed by adding the suffix “-wise”?
a) Nounb) Verbc) Adjectived) Adverb
7. I m sorry of the following is usually a class-maintaining suffix?
a) “-or”b) “-ate”c) “-dom”d) “-ouse) A & Df) B & C
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