Suffixes room morphemes (specific teams of letters with specific semantic meaning) that are included onto the finish of source words to readjust their meaning. Suffixes are one of the two primary kinds of affixes—the other kind is prefixes, which come at the start of a source word.

You are watching: Suffix type that forms parts of speech


There is a huge selection of suffixes in English, which deserve to be generally categorized as either inflectional or derivational.
Suffixes are provided to change the grammatical duty of an present word. Sometimes this readjust is minor, with words retaining the basic an interpretation and word class (part that speech) however conforming to the grammatical rules required by the framework of the sentence; these are known as inflectional suffixes. An ext often, the enhancement of a suffix outcomes in the development of a word that is in a totally different class and shares a definition similar to the original root word; this are referred to as derivational suffixes.

Inflectional Suffixes


Inflection refers to the changing of a word’s spelling follow to the grammatical framework of a sentence. This is often achieved by including a particular suffix ~ above the end of a source word.
These muco suffixes room only supplied to modify the grammatical an interpretation of a word; they carry out not readjust a word native one component of decided to another, nor carry out they change the fundamental an interpretation of the word. For example, the suffix “-s” is provided with many nouns to indicate that they space plural (i.e., more than one), as in boys and also girls. The simple meanings of the source words boy and also girl carry out not change; they’ve merely been inflected to present that the speaker is talk about more than one.
Inflectional suffixes can be used with nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. The tables below show every one of the inflectional suffixes offered with these parts of speech, as well as examples that each.

Inflectional suffix of Nouns


Suffix
Grammatical Function
Example Words
“-s”
Changes many nouns indigenous singular to plural.
bank→banks
car→cars
pizza→pizzas
toy→toys
wire→wires
“-es”
Forms the plural because that nouns ending in a sibilant sound (/s/, /z/, /ʧ/, or /ʃ/) as created by the endings “-ss,” “-z,” “-x,” “-sh,” “-ch,” or “-tch.”
coach→coaches
watch→watches
dish→dishes
box→boxes
bus→buses
kiss→two kisses
waltz→waltzes
“-en”
Changes particular irregular nouns* from singular come plural.
ox→oxen
child→children
brother→brethren
(*There are countless irregular plural creates of noun that do not adhere come any specific spelling pattern. Come learn much more about these and other rules because that making nouns plural, check out the ar on creating Plurals.)

Inflectional suffixes of Verbs


Suffix
Grammatical Function
Example Words
“-s”
Forms the third-person singular for most verbs.
hear→hears
run→runs
think→thinks
write→writes
“-es”
Forms the third-person singular because that verbs ending in a sibilant sound (/s/, /z/, /ʧ/, or /ʃ/) developed by the end “-ss,” “-z,” “-x,” “-sh,” “-ch,” or “-tch,” and verbs finishing in a consonant + O.
approach→approaches
catch→catches
do→does
go→goes
hush→hushes
pass→passes
quiz→quizzes
“-ed”
Forms the past an easy tense and past participle of many verbs.
ask→asked
burn→burned
dare→dared
hope→hoped
open→opened
talk→talked
walk→walked
“-en”
Forms the previous participle of part irregular verbs.
be→been
drive→driven
eat→eaten
give→given
got→gotten
sink→sunken
write→written
“-ing”
Forms the existing participle and also gerund of verbs.
build→building
care→caring
hear→hearing
pass→passing
read→reading
see→seeing
wear→wearing

Inflectional suffix of Adjectives and Adverbs


Suffix
Grammatical Function
Example Words
“-er”
Forms the comparative degree for many adjectives and adverbs.
big→bigger
fast→faster*
happy→happier
high→higher*
sad→sadder
slow→slower*
“-est”
Forms the superlative degree for numerous adjectives and also adverbs.
big→biggest
fast→fastest*
happy→happiest
high→highest*
sad→saddest
slow→slowest*
(*These words role either together adjectives or adverbs, depending on their use. Those there is no an asterisk only function as adjectives.)

Derivational Suffixes


Unlike inflectional suffixes, derivational suffixes create a new—though related—meaning in words that’s formed. In countless cases, the word created by the addition of a derivative suffix will belong come a totally different component of decided (or word class). Suffix that reason a change in word class are sometimes referred to as class-changing suffixes.
There room many, many derivational suffixes provided in English—too many to perform here. We’ll simply look at those most generally encountered in day-to-day writing and also speech.
It’s necessary to note that countless words in modern English function suffixes provided with Latin, Old English, or foreign-language roots. For the benefits of simplicity, we’ll greatly be concentrating on examples of root that have the right to stand alone together words (with a few notable exceptions).

Suffixes that kind nouns


Derivational suffix that create nouns many often affix to verbs and (to a lesser degree) adjectives. However, number of noun suffixes are additionally class-maintaining, meaning they type new noun from various other existing nouns. Fine look at some of these a small later.
Suffix
Suffix meaning
Attaches to
Example words
“-age”
An action, process, or the result; a thing or location used for such an action.
verbs
(Often a class-maintaining suffix, together we’ll watch later.)
append→appendage
block→blockage
cover→coverage
dote→dotage
haul→haulage
pack→package
seep→seepage
shrink→shrinkage
store→storage
use→usage
wreck→wreckage
“-al”
An activity or process.
verbs
approve→approval
betray→betrayal
bury→burial
deny→denial
dispose→disposal
propose→proposal
renew→renewal
reverse→reversal
“-ance”
An action, process, state, condition, or quality.
verbs
most adjectives ending in “-ant”
appear→appearance
arrogant→arrogance
brilliant→brilliance
comply→compliance
deliver→deliverance
endure→endurance
fragrant→fragrance
ignorant→ignorance
perform→performance
reluctant→reluctance
tolerate→tolerance
“-dom”
A state or condition.
adjectives
(More frequently a class-maintaining suffix, as we’ll watch later.)
bored→boredom
free→freedom
wise→wisdom
“-ee”
A human or point receiving the effect of an action; less commonly, a human or thing managing or performing a passive action.
verbs
absent→absentee
address→addressee
devote→devotee
employ→employee
interview→interviewee
nominate→nominee
train→trainee
trust→trustee
“-ence”
An action, process, state, condition, or quality.
verbs
most adjectives ending in “-ent”
absent→absence
cohere→coherence
defer→deference
evident→evidence
exist→existence
intelligent→intelligence
lenient→lenience
occur→occurrence
patient→patience
persist→persistence
revere→reverence
silent→silence
transfer→transference
“-er”
A human being or thing performing or qualified of a specific action.
verbs
bake→baker
compose→composer
cook→cooker
defend→defender
employ→employer
interview→interviewer
keep→keeper
teach→teacher
write→writer
“-ery”
The act, process, or practice of doing something, or a location for such.
verbs
bake→bakery
bribe→bribery
debauch→debauchery
distill→distillery
hatch→hatchery
mock→mockery
rob→robbery
trick→trickery
“-ication”
A state, condition, action, process, or practice, or the an outcome thereof.
verbs ending in “-fy”
amplify→amplification
clarify→clarification
dignify→dignification
falsify→falsifiication
glorify→glorification
identify→identification
justify→justification
modify→modification
quantify→quantification
simplify→simplification
unify→unification
“-ism”
1. An action, process, or practice.
2. A state, condition, or quality.
3. A doctrine, theory, or set of guiding principles.
1. Verbs
2 & 3. Adjectives
active→activism
antagonize→antagonism
baptize→baptism
criticize→criticism
colloquial→colloquialism
exorcize→exorciism
feminine→feminism
liberal→liberalism
metabolize→metabolism
modern→modernism
pacific→pacifism
“-ist”
One that performs a particular action, process, or practice.
verbs
(More frequently a class-maintaining suffix, together we’ll check out later.)
antagonize→antagonist
cycle→cyclist
exorcize→exorcicist
lobby→lobbyist
theorize→theorist
“-(i)ty”
(The i is dropped if the coming before vowel sound is or becomes unstressed.)
A state, condition, trait, or quality.
adjectives
able→ability
certain→certainty
cruel→cruelty
dual→duality
equal→equality
feminine→femininity
frail→frailty
hilarious→hilarity
masculine→masculinity
mature→maturity
plural→plurality
pure→purity
secure→security
“-ment”
An action or process, or the an outcome thereof.
verbs
adjust→adjustment
bereave→bereavement
contain→containment
disappoint→disappointment
employ→employment
fulfill→fulfillment
judge→judgment
move→movement
place→placement
resent→resentment
treat→treatment
“-ness”
A state, condition, trait, or measure thereof.
adjectives
alert→alertness
cold→coldness
dark→darkness
exact→exactness
fierce→fierceness
happy→happiness
kind→kindness
like→likeness
selfish→selfishness
useful→usefulness
“-or”
A person or thing managing or performing one action.
verbs
act→actor
communicate→communicator
direct→director
educate→educator
invest→investor
profess→professor
sail→sailor
survive→survivor
translate→translator
“-sion”
A state, condition, action, process, or practice, or the result thereof.
verbs
admit→admission
allude→allusion
compel→compulsion
convert→conversion
decide→decision
divert→diversion
emit→emission
extend→extension
impress→impression
invade→invasion
invert→inversion
obsess→obsession
propel→propulsion
seclude→seclusion
suspend→suspension
transmit→transmission
“-tion”
A state, condition, action, process, or practice, or the an outcome thereof.
verbs
act→action
affect→affection
communicate→communication
complete→completion
direct→direction
educate→education
evolve→evolution
inscribe→inscription
interrupt→interruption
misconceive→misconception
resolve→resolution
subscribe→subscription
translate→translation
Nouns formed from various other nouns
As we mentioned already, many suffixes attach to existing noun to create one more noun v a new meaning. Because the words stay nouns, these suffix are known as class-maintaining suffixes. (We looked at some of these already—they deserve to be either class maintaining or course changing, relying on the root word the the suffix attaches to.)
Here are some of the many common:
Suffix
Suffix meaning
Example words
“-age”
1. A collection or group; a fixed or amount.
2. A status, relationship, or connection.
3. A problem or state the being.
4. A place of residence.
4. A rate or measure up of.
acre→acreage
bag→baggage
baron→baronage
bond→bondage
cube→cubage
floor→floorage
foot→footage
front→frontage
hermit→hermitage
mile→mileage
orphan→orphanage
pasture→pasturage
percent→percentage
sewer→sewerage
vicar→vicarage
watt→wattage
“-(e)ry”
(The e is usually dropped if the preceding vowel sound is or becomes unstressed.)
1. A group, collection, category, or course of things.
2. A state or condition of being.
3. The characteristic qualities, actions, or behavior.
4. A exercise or occupation.
ancestor→ancestry
buffoon→buffoonery
circuit→circuitry
crock→crockery
dentist→dentistry
image→imagery
peasant→peasantry
pedant→pedantry
prude→prudery
scene→scenery
snob→snobbery
zealot→zealotry
“-ist”
1. One that produces, practices, plays, operates, or is otherwise associated to a details thing or activity.
2. One who complies with or adheres come a certain doctrine, theory, or collection of guiding principles.
3. One who specializes in a certain field that study.
activism→activist
anthropology→anthropologist
art→artist
bass→bassist
biology→biologist
Calvinism→Calvinist
capitalism→capitalist
feminism→feminist
guitar→guitarist
modernism→modernist
novel→novelist
pacifism→pacifist
pharmacy→pharmacist
piano→pianist
psychiatry→psychiatrist
racism→racist
romanticism→romanticist
science→scientist
zoology→zoologist
“-dom”
1. A state, quality, or condition.
2. A stated domain or jurisdiction.
3. A particular rank or position.
duke→dukedom
earl→earldom
chief→chiefdom
Christian→Christendom
fan→fandom
king→kingdom
martyr→martyrdom
prince→princedom
star→stardom
“-hood”
1. A state, quality, or condition.
2. A group sharing a state, quality, or condition.
adult→adulthood
boy→boyhood
brother→brotherhood
child→childhood
father→fatherhood
girl→girlhood
knight→knighthood
man→manhood
mother→motherhood
parent→parenthood
sister→sisterhood
woman→womanhood
“-ship”
1. A state, quality, or condition.
2. A certain rank, status, or position, or the time spent in such a position.
3. Skill, craft, or artistry to work in a certain profession or practice.
apprentice→apprenticeship
champion→championship
citizen→citizenship
craftsman→craftsmanship
dealer→dealership
dean→deanship
friend→friendship
leader→leadership
penman→penmanship
professor→professorship
scholar→scholarship
sponsor→sponsorship
workman→workmanship
“-(o)logy”
Another typical suffix used to kind nouns is the ending “-logy” (or “-ology” as soon as following specific consonant sounds), i beg your pardon produces the meaning “a branch or field of knowledge, science, theory, or study.”
This suffix generally does not affix to pre-existing English roots; instead, it an ext often connects to Greek or Latin roots. Because that example:
Root
Root Meaning
+ -(o)logy
New Meaning
astro-
star, celestial body, or outer space
astrology
Originally an interpretation “the scientific research of the heavenly bodies,” astrology currently refers come the research of the positions and also motions the planets, stars, and also the moon in the id that lock influence person decisions and characteristics.
bio-
life
biology
The science of life and living animals.
cardio-
pertaining to the heart
cardiology
The scientific study of the structures, functions, and disorders that the heart.
geo-
earth (generally) or earth (specifically)
geology
The clinical study that the origin and structures that the Earth.
ideo-
of or pertaining come ideas
ideology
A set of doctrines or beliefs that are held by an individual or mutual by members the a social group.
neuro-
of or pertaining come a nerve or the worried system
neurology
The scientific study the the structures, functions, and disorders that the worried system.
psych-
mind, spirit, soul
psychology
The science and study that mental and also behavioral processes.
theo-
God or gods
theology
The study of the divine and also of religious truths.
zoo-*
animal, living being
zoology
The research of animals, including their physiology, development, and classification.
(*The source zoo- is a combining type derived from the Greek indigenous zoion. The English indigenous zoo is in reality a shortening that the ax zoological garden.)
Because the definition of “-(o)logy” is so fine established, that is periodically attached come existing English words come create new terms that follow the pattern developed by the Greek and also Latin roots. For instance:
anesthesia→anesthesiologyclimate→climatologycriminal→criminologyicon→iconologymusic→musicologyradiation→radiologyreflex→reflexology
However, this mix is much less typical than the usage of Greek or Latin roots.

Suffixes that kind verbs


Derivational suffixes that develop verbs affix to nouns and also adjectives.
Suffix
Suffix meaning
Attaches to
Example words
“-en”
1. To come to be or cause to become.
2. Come come or cause to have.
1. Adjectives
2. Nouns
black→blacken
broad→broaden
cheap→cheapen
fright→frighten
hard→harden
heart→hearten
length→lengthen
red→redden
sharp→sharpen
sick→sicken
strength→strengthen
“-ify”
To do or cause to become.
adjectives, nouns
ample→amplify
beauty→beautify
clear→clarify
diverse→diversify
dignity→dignify
glory→glorify
just→justify
pure→purify
null→nullify
simple→simplify
type→typify
“-ize”
To end up being or reason to become; to perform or make the to i beg your pardon the suffix is attached.
adjectives, nouns
accessory→accessorize
apology→apologize
capital→capitalize
civil→civilize
economy→economize
empathy→empathize
fertile→fertilize
industrial→industrialize
legal→legalize
human→humanize
standard→standardize
theory→theorize
union→unionize
“-ise” vs. “-ize”
In American English, the suffix “-ize” is offered to adjust nouns and adjectives into verbs, together we have just seen, and also it likewise appears in verbs that execute not have standalone root words. British English, however, predominantly offers the synonymous suffix “-ise.” For more information ~ above this distinction in spelling, go to the ar on American English vs. Brothers English.
“-ate”
There is additionally another common suffix that outcomes in the production of verbs: “-ate.” However, while this finishing does occasionally connect to pre-existing noun or adjectives (meaning “to action on, cause to end up being or be modified, or furnish with”), the is much much more likely to appear in verbs that come indigenous the previous participles the Latin verbs. Even many words the look like they come straight from nouns or adjectives space in fact obtained from Latin. Because that example:
Formed native nouns and adjectives
Formed from Latin verbs
active→activate
caffeine→caffeinate
caliber→calibrate
hyphen→hyphenate
pollen→pollinate
abbreviate→from Latin abbreviatus
accentuate→from Latin accentuatus
circulate→from Latin circulatus
domesticate→from Latin domesticatus
duplicate→from Latin duplicatus
educate→from Latin educatus
elongate→from Latin elongatus
habituate→from Latin habituatus
insulate→from Latin insulatus
migrate→from Latin migratus
notate→from Latin notatus
separate→from Latin separatus
translate→from Latin translatus

Suffixes that form adjectives


Derivational suffix that develop adjectives usually attach to nouns. Much much less often, they attach to verbs.
Suffix
Suffix meaning
Attaches to
Example words
“-able”
Possible; capable of; perfect for.
verbs
adore→adorable
break→breakable
debate→debatable
do→doable
excite→excitable
live→livable
manage→manageable
read→readable
stop→stoppable
“-al”
Having the attributes of or relating to.
nouns
artifice→artificial
bride→bridal
brute→brutal
center→central
emotion→emotional
form→formal
logic→logical
music→musical
politics→political
space→spatial
tide→tidal
“-en”
Made the or resembling.
nouns
ash→ashen
earth→earthen
flax→flaxen
gold→golden
lead→leaden
wax→waxen
wood→wooden
“-ful”
1. Full of; identified by.
2. Tending or maybe to.
1. Nouns
2. Verbs
beauty→beautiful
care→careful
delight→delightful
forget→forgetful
grace→graceful
joy→joyful
law→lawful
mourn→mournful
play→playful
respect→respectful
waste→wasteful
“-ible”
Possible; qualified of; suitable for.
verbs
access→accessible
collapse→collapsible
digest→digestible
divide→divisible
eat→edible
flex→flexible
omit→omissible
perceive→perceptible
receive→receptible
sense→sensible
suggest→suggestible
“-ic”
Having the qualities of or relating to.
nouns
acid→acidic
base→basic
comedy→comedic
galaxy→galactic
hero→heroic
irony→ironic
magnet→magnetic
myth→mythic
nostalgia→nostalgic
poetry→poetic
rhythm→rhythmic
system→systemic
“-ical”
Having the characteristics of or relating to.
nouns
acid→atomical
biology→biological
comedy→comical
history→historical
myth→mythical
philosophy→philosophical
type→typical
whimsy→whimsical
“-ish”
1. Typical of, comparable to, or associated to.
2. That or linked with (a details nationality, region, or language).
3. Inclined come or preoccupied with.
nouns
book→bookish
boy→boyish
Britain→British
child→childish
clown→clownish
Denmark→Danish
fiend→fiendish
girl→girlish
nightmare→nightmarish
prude→prudish
self→selfish
Spain→Spanish
Sweden→Swedish
“-less”
Lacking; deprived of; without.
nouns
aim→aimless
blame→blameless
color→colorless
doubt→doubtless
home→homeless
hope→hopeless
limit→limitless
need→needless
point→pointless
rest→restless
self→selfless
time→timeless
use→useless
“-ly”
1. Comparable to or properties of.
2. Arising at such intervals the time.
nouns
brother→brotherly
coward→cowardly
day→daily
elder→elderly
friend→friendly
heaven→heavenly
hour→hourly
like→likely
love→lovely
month→monthly
miser→miserly
order→orderly
scholar→scholarly
year→yearly
“-ous”
Possessing; identified by; full of.
nouns
advantage→advantageous
caution→cautious
disaster→disastrous
fame→famous
glamor→glamorous
joy→joyous
malice→malicious
nutrition→nutritious
religion→religious
pretense→pretentious
poison→poisonous
suspicion→suspicious
“-y”
1. Identified by; consisting or having the top quality of; filled with.
2. Tending or lean to.
1. Nouns
2. Verbs
bulk→bulky
class→classy
dream→dreamy
ease→easy
leak→leaky
mess→messy
rain→rainy
rope→ropy
shine→shiny
smell→smelly
wimp→wimpy

Suffixes that kind adverbs


By much the many common and well-known suffix that creates adverb by attaching to adjectives is “-ly.” However, there room two others derivational suffixes that type adverbs: “-ways/-wise” and “-ward.”
Suffix
Suffix meaning
Attaches to
Example words
“-ly”
1. In a certain or specified manner.
2. At the interval the time.
1. Adjectives
2. Noun (units of time)
abrupt→abruptly
artistic→artistically
calm→calmly
day→daily
daring→daringly
double→doubly
easy→easily
extreme→extremely
full→fully
happy→happily
hour→hourly
lucky→luckily
majestic→majestically
month→monthly
practical→practically
probable→probably
quiet→quietly
right→rightly
smart→smartly
true→truly
whole→wholly
year→yearly
“-ways/-wise”
(“-wise” is much more common, particularly in American English, except with the source side, which practically always i do not care sideways)
1. In a stated manner, direction, or position.
2. With referral or in for to. (sometimes hyphenated)
nouns, adjectives
clock→clockwise
business→businesswise
edge→edgewise (occasionally: edgeways)
health→health-wise
length→lengthwise (occasionally: lengthways)
like→likewise
other→otherwise
side→sideways
weather→weather-wise
“-ward”
In a stated direction or position.
nouns, adjectives, adverbs
back→backward
down→downward
east→eastward
fore→forward
front→frontward
home→homeward
north→northward
on→onward
south→southward
to→toward
west→westward

Spelling changes


Finally, it’s worth pointing out how the assignment of countless words becomes slightly altered when a suffix is added. Also though these transforms can at time seem haphazard, there space actually several guidelines we deserve to follow to determine just how a word’s spelling might readjust if a suffix is added. Walk to the ar on spelling Conventions v Suffixes to learn more.
Quiz

1. Suffixes room attached to which part of a root word?

a) The beginningb) The middlec) The endd) every one of the above

2. What kind of suffix just affects the grammatical duty of a root word?

a) derivative b) inflectional c) Class-maintaining d) Class-changing

3. I beg your pardon of the adhering to is the role of a class-changing suffix?

a) changing the fundamental definition of the source wordb) changing the component of speech of the source wordc) changing the grammatical function of the root wordd) A & Be) B & C

4. What component of speech is created by including the suffix “-ness”?

a) Nounb) Verbc) Adjectived) Adverb

5. What component of speech is formed by adding the suffix “-ize”?

a) Nounb) Verbc) Adjectived) Adverb

6. What part of speech is formed by adding the suffix “-wise”?

a) Nounb) Verbc) Adjectived) Adverb

7. I m sorry of the following is usually a class-maintaining suffix?

a) “-or”b) “-ate”c) “-dom”d) “-ouse) A & Df) B & C

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