Architecture is an art kind that reflects how we existing ourselves across the earth landscape, and, like various other expressive mediums, it alters with styles, technologies and cultural adaptations. Architecture not only provides worldly needs of shelter, workspace and also storage but also represents person ideals in structures like courthouses and also government buildings and manifestations the the spirit in churches and also temples. Traditional style has survived over thousands of years in one type or another, while modern-day design offers new approaches in exactly how we use materials and an innovation to form the look of our environment.

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Early developments in structure Design and Techniques Methods

The simple methods of building design and construction have been used for countless years. Stacking stones, laying brick, or lashing wood together in one kind or one more are still used today in all parts of the world. Yet over the centuries, advancements in methods and materials have actually given brand-new expression come architecture and the human being footprint ~ above the landscape. We have the right to look come historical instances for hints that give context to different style periods.

In west culture, one of the earliest settlements with long-term structures was found at Catalhoyuk in Turkey (pictured below). The well-off soil the surrounds the settlement shows the residents relied in part on farming. Dated to around 7500 BCE, the homes are built from dried mud and brick and also show wooden support beams extending the ceilings. The design of the negotiation incorporates a cell-like framework of small buildings one of two people sharing typical walls or separated by a few feet. The roofs room flat and also were used as pathways between buildings.


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Restoration that interior, Catalhoyuk, Turkey. Image licensed under an imaginative Commons.


A significant advance came v the breakthrough of the post and also lintel system. V this, a mechanism of posts –either rock or timber – are inserted at intervals and also spanned through beams at the tops. The pack is dispersed down the posts to allow for locations of open room between them. The earliest usage is watched at Stonehenge (below), a ancient monument in southerly England date to about 3000 BCE.


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Stonehenge, Wiltshire County, England. Image: David Ball. Image license is granted under an imaginative Commons.


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Post and Lintel assistance in modern use. Image by Christopher Gildow. Used with permission.


colonnade continues the post and lintel an approach as a collection of columns and beams enveloping larger locations of space. Colonnades deserve to be complimentary standing or part of a bigger structure. Typical in Egyptian, Greek and Roman architectural design, their usage creates intuitive rhythm and also implies a sense of grandeur. With time columns came to be categorized by the resources style at your tops. The smooth and also unadorned Doric columns give way to much more elaborate styles: the scrolled Ionian and the high relief Corinthian.


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Greek and also Roman capitals: optimal row: Doric. Middle Row: Ionic. Bottom Row: Corinthian and a composite Ionic Corinthian. Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. Publicly domain.


The Parthenon, a Greek holy place to the mythic goddess Athena, was constructed in the fifth century BCE in Athens and also is component of a larger community of structures in the Acropolis. Every are considered pinnacles of classic Greek architecture. Doric colonnades march across all political parties of the Parthenon, the external boundary the a very ordered internal floor plan.


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The Parthenon, Athens, Greece. 447 BCE. Digital image by Kallistos and licensed under an imaginative Commons


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Floor arrangement of the Parthenon. Licensed through an imaginative Commons.


Another instance is the colonnade neighboring St. Peter’s Square in the Vatican, Rome.


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Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Colonnade at St. Peter’s Square, the Vatican. 1656–67. Photo by D.F. Malan. Licensed through an imaginative Commons.


The colonnade is component of our modern surroundings too. Parks and other windy spaces usage them come the same effect: offering visual and also material stability in spanning locations of open up space.


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Contemporary colonnade. Image: Christopher Gildow. Used through permission.


The advance of the arch gave architecture new alternatives come post and also lintel construction. Arches appeared as beforehand as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture. They it is provided strength and stability to walls without enormous posts and beams since their building and construction minimizes the shear load applied on them. This expected walls could go greater without compromising your stability and at the same time create larger locations of open an are between arches. In addition, the arch gave buildings a much more organic, expressive visual element. The Colosseum in Rome (below), developed in the an initial century CE, offers repeated arcs to define an imposing however decidedly airy structure. The reality that most of that is quiet standing this particular day is testimony to the inherent strength of the arch.


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The Colosseum, Rome, Italy. An initial century CE. Picture by David Iliff. Image license is granted through an innovative Commons.


Roman aqueducts are an additional example of how properly the arch was used. Tall and also graceful, the arcs support themselves in a colonnade and were used to carry a network of water networks throughout old Rome.


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Roman aqueduct, c. First century CE. Image in the general public domain.


From the arch came two an ext important developments: extending an arch in a direct direction developed a vault, encapsulating tall, small spaces v inverted “U” shame ceilings. The compressive force of the vault forced thick wall surfaces on every side to save it native collapsing. As such many vaults were situated underground – essentially tunnels – connecting areas of a larger building or giving covered transfer of people, goods and materials transparent the city.

An arch rotated ~ above its upright axis creates a dome, with its curving essential scoop of room reserved because that the tops of the most important buildings. The Pantheon in Rome sporting activities a dome with an oculus – a round or elliptical opening at the top, the is the huge building’s only light source.


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Dome of the Pantheon with oculus, Rome. 126 CE. Image in the public domain.


These elements an unified to revolutionize architectural style throughout Europe and the Middle eastern in the type of bigger and stronger churches, mosques and also even sectarian federal government buildings. Styles adjusted with technology. Romanesque architecture was well-known for virtually three hundred years (800 – 1100 CE). The layout is defined by barrel or groin vault ceilings, special walls with low exterior buttresses and also squared off towers. Structures reached a suggest where lock struggled to assistance their own weight. The architectural systems to the problem was a flying buttress, an exterior load-bearing column connected to the key structure through a segmented arch or “flyer.”


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Diagram of a flying buttress from St. Denis basilica, Paris. From the Dictionary the French architecture from 11th come 16th Century (1856), licensed through an innovative Commons.


Flying buttresses became a type of exoskeleton that transferred the heavy weight of Romanesque rock roofs with their arches and also into the ground, far from the building. They became catalysts because that the Gothic style based upon higher, thinner walls, pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and also spired towers. Also, the thinner wall surfaces of the Gothic style enabled for much more stained glass windows and also interior illumination.


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Church of St. Denis, France. Seventh–twelfth centuries CE. Image in the general public domain


St. Denis basilica in France (above) is among the an initial Gothic-style churches, known for the high vaulted ceilings and also extensive usage of stained glass windows. The architecture of the church came to be a prize of spirituality itself: soaring heights, magnificently embellished interiors and exteriors, elaborate lighting and sheer grandeur top top a substantial scale.

The Doges palace in Venice, Italy (pictured below) housed the politics aristocracy of the Republic the Venice for a thousands years. Developed in 1309 CE, that rhythmic levels of columns and also pointed arches, divided by fractals as they rise, give way to intricate geometric fads in the pink brick façade. The ornamental additions at the optimal edge reinforce the fads below.


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The Doges Palace, 1309 CE, viewed from St. Mark’s Square, Venice, Italy. Image by Martti Mustonen and licensed through creative Commons.


IMPERIAL style IN CHINA

Chinese style refers to a style of architecture that has actually taken form in eastern Asia over plenty of centuries. The structural values of timeless Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged. Chinese architectural (and aesthetic) design is based upon symmetry, a general focus on the horizontal and site layouts the reflect a hierarchy of importance. These considerations an outcome in formal and also stylistic differences in comparison come the West, and also display alternatives in design.


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Gate of supreme Harmony, Forbidden City, Beijing, China. Photograph Credit Andrew and also Annemarie, picture licensed through an innovative Commons

CROSS-CULTURAL INFLUENCES

As overland and marine trade paths expanded between Eastern and Western people so walk the influence of cultural styles in architecture, religion and commerce. The most crucial of this passages to be the Silk Road, a system of paths that developed over thousands of years across the European and also Asian continents. Along this path are buildings that display cross-cultural influences in their design. 

The Dome the the rock in Jerusalem provides different social influences manifest in one building: a classic Greek colonnade at the main entrance, the gold dome and central turret supporting it, western format arches and also colorful Islamic surface embellishment.


The Dome of the Rock, ~ above the holy place Mount, in the Old City the Jerusalem, picture Credit Andrew Shiva, picture licensed through an innovative Commons


The Louvre Palace in Paris, once the official royal residence and also now among the world’s best museums, had actually its starts in the 12th century yet didn’t achieve its present form until recently. The building’s layout is French Renaissance – marked by a official symmetry, horizontal stability and restrained ornamentation. The Louvre executive board determined architect I. M. Pei’s glass pyramid architecture as the defining facet for the brand-new main entry in 1989. The choice was a great success: the pyramid further defines the public space above ground and gives organic light and a feeling of openness come the secret lobby beneath it.

THE commercial REVOLUTION

Beginning in the 18th century the Industrial revolution made basic changes in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation and housing. Architecture adjusted in solution to the brand-new industrial landscape. Prior to the so late 19th century, the weight of a multistory structure had come be sustained principally by the stamin of the walls. The taller the building, the much more strain this put on the lower sections. Due to the fact that there to be clear engineering borders to the weight such load-bearing walls might sustain, large designs supposed massively thick walls on the ground floors, and also definite borders on the building’s height.


Eiffel Tower, start of building and construction of 2nd stage, may 1888. Picture in the public domain


Forged iron and milled steel began to change wood, brick and rock as primary materials for huge buildings. This change is encapsulated in the Eiffel Tower, developed in 1889. Stand on four substantial arched legs, the steel lattice tower rises directly to just over 1000 feet high. The Eiffel Tower not only ended up being an symbol for France yet for market itself – declaring a new age in materials, design and construction methods.

In America, the advance of cheap, functional steel in the second half of the 19th century helped change the urban landscape. The nation was in the middle of quick social and economic expansion that made for great opportunities in architecture design. A much an ext urbanized culture was forming and also the society called the end for new, larger buildings. By the center of the 19th century downtown areas in big cities began to change themselves with new roads and also buildings to accommodate the growth. The mass manufacturing of steel was the key driving pressure behind the ability to construct skyscrapers during the mid 1880s.

Steel framing was collection into structures of reinforced concrete, concrete poured around a grid of stole rods (re-bar) or other matrices to increase tensile strength in foundations, columns and also vertical slabs.

MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE

The move to modernism was introduced with the opened of the Bauhaus institution in Weimar Germany. Started in 1919 through the German architect Walter Gropius, Bauhaus (literal translate into “house that construction”) to be a teaching and also learning facility for modern industrial and also architectural design. Though not a movement or layout in itself, Bauhaus instructors and also staff reflect different artistic perspectives, all of them born from the contemporary aesthetic. The was partly the product of a post- people War I find for new artistic interpretations in Europe. Gropius’s commitment to the rule of bringing every the arts in addition to a focus on practical, practical applications. This view rejected the concept of “art because that art’s sake”, putting a premium ~ above the understanding of materials and their reliable design. This idea mirrors the influence of Constructivism, a comparable philosophy emerged concurrently in Russia that provided the arts for social purposes. Bauhaus existed for fourteen years, relocating 3 times, and influencing a entirety generation that architects, artists, graphic and industrial designers and typographers.

In 1924 Gropius designed the Bauhaus main building in Dessau. That modern kind includes bolder lines, one asymmetric balance and curtain walls of glass. The painted in neutral tones of white and gray accented by strong primary color on selected doors.


Bauhaus in Dessau, Germany, 1925-26, picture in windy domain


Frank Lloyd light is taken into consideration one the the 20th century’s biggest architects. Light designed buildings, churches, homes and schools, however is ideal known because that his architecture of falling Water, a house in the Pennsylvania countryside for Chicago department keep owner Edgar Kaufman. His architecture innovations encompass unified open floor plans, a balance of timeless and modern-day materials and the use of cantilevered forms that extends horizontal balance.

The Guggenheim Museum in brand-new York City is an instance of Wright’s concern with essential forms and also utilization of space. The main facet in the architecture is a spiral type rising from the middle of the cantilevered main structure. Paintings are exhibited on its bent walls. Travellers take the elevator come the optimal floor and also view the functions as they travel down the tenderness sloped hallway. This spiral surrounding a large atrium in the middle of the building and a domed skylight in ~ the top.


Atrium, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Manhattan, brand-new York, 1959, image in the general public domain


POST modern-day & modern ARCHITECTURE

Postmodern architecture began as an international style whose very first examples are typically cited together being native the 1950s, yet did not end up being a movement until the so late 1970s and continues to influence present-day architecture. Postmodernity in style is generally thought to it is in heralded by the return the “wit, ornament and also reference” to design in response to the formalism the the international Style.

Michael Graves’s Portland building from 1982 personifies the idea behind postmodernist thought. A recommendation to much more traditional layout is obvious in the patterned column-like sections. Overt large decorative elements are built into and also onto the exterior walls, and contrasts between materials, colors and forms offer the building a graphic feeling of intuitive wit.

We can see how design is actively evolving in the modern-day work of open minded Gehry and also Zaha Hadid. Gehry’s occupational is renowned for that is rolling and also bent organic forms. His gestural, erratic sketches are revolutionized into buildings through a computer aided design process (CAD). They have actually roots in postmodernism yet lean towards a fully new modern-day style. They have as lot to do with sculpture as they perform with architecture. Seattle’s Museum of Pop society is an example of the complexity that goes into his designs. The curves, ripples and folds roll across room and the multi-colored titanium panels adorning the exterior emphasize the effect. 

GREEN ARCHITECTURE

In the last te there has arised a solid interest in developing “green” design – designs the incorporate ecologically and environmentally sustainable techniques in website preparation, materials, energy use and also waste systems. Some space simple: buildings oriented come the southern or west helps through passive solar heating. Others are an ext complex: Solar voltaic cells on the roof to generate strength to the building. Green roofs are made the sod and also other essential material and act together a cooling agent and also recycle rainwater too. In addition, technological innovations in lighting, heating and also cooling systems have actually made them more efficient.

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A branch the the Seattle publicly Library uses green design. A glass curtain wall on the phibìc side makes use of natural lighting. Overhanging wooden roof beams shades harsh light. The totality structure is nestled under a environment-friendly roof that sod and also over 18,000 low water use plants. 7 skylights top top the roof provide much more natural lighting.