i cannot recognize the calculation "66 ⊕ fa = 9c". The amount is plainly over "ff", so ns am confused. The subject is simple encryption algorithm.

You are watching: Plus sign with circle around it

What go a circled add to mean?


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People room saying the the symbol doesn"t median addition. This is true, but doesn"t define why a plus-like prize is supplied for something that isn"t addition.

The price is that for modulo addition of 1-bit values, 0+0 == 1+1 == 0, and also 0+1 == 1+0 == 1. Those are the exact same values together XOR.

So, add to in a circle in this context means "bitwise addition modulo-2". I m sorry is, as everyone says, XOR because that integers. It"s common in math to use plus in a circle because that an operation which is a kind of addition, however isn"t constant integer addition.


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It"s not an addition, but an to exclude, OR operation. At least the output confirms come the same.

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That"s the XOR operator, no the plus operator

XOR works little bit by bit, without transferring over prefer PLUS does

1 XOR 1 = 01 XOR 0 = 10 XOR 0 = 00 XOR 1 = 1
Hope this layout works, take it it to the binary depiction with one XOR:

66h = 102 decimal = 01100110 binaryFAh = 250 decimal = 11111010 binary------------------------------------ 10011100 binary XOR rules are basically:1 XOR 1 = 0 false1 XOR 0 = 1 true0 XOR 0 = 0 falsebut the wiki I attached earlier will give you much more details if needed...thats what that looks favor they are doing in the screenshot friend provided


It"s an exclude, or (XOR). If ns remember correctly, once doing bitwise math the period (.) means AND and also the plus (+) means OR. Putting a circle approximately the to add to mean XOR is continual with the layout used because that OR.

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I provided the reasonable in the replies by rampion and also schnaader. I will summarise exactly how I evidenced the results. I adjusted the number to binary and then supplied the XOR-operation. Alternatively, you can use the Hexadecimal tables: Click here!


It is XOR. Another name for the XOR duty is addition without carry. I intend that"s just how the symbol might make sense.


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