At east Valley Ophthalmology, we reap sharing information around eye care. Below is a list of typical eye-related medical terminology anddefinitions to aid you in understanding all elements of your eye careand eye surgery. Us invite girlfriend to do an appointment and also learn more: 480-981-6111.

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A B C D E F G H i J K together M N O ns Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Aberration: Distortions, pertained to astigmatism , that reason the i can not qualify of light rays entering the eye to converge (come together) to a single focus allude on the retina . Aberration are split into two main categories: higher-order and lower-order.

Ablation: operation removal that tissue, commonly using a cool beam laser .

Ablation zone: The area of tissue that is removed throughout laser surgery.

Accommodation: capability of the eye to change its focus in between distant objects and near objects.

Acuity: Sharpness, acuteness, or keenness of vision.

Acute: developing suddenly.

Adnexa: Accessory frameworks of the eye, including the eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, etc.

AK: Astigmatic Keratotomy , modified kind of Radial Keratotomy (RK).

Amblyopia: Dullness or obscurity of sight for no obvious organic reason, thus not correctable through glasses or surgery. Sometimes dubbed a lazy eye, wherein one eye becomes dependent top top the other eye come focus, usually developed in early childhood. Often associated with strabismus .

Amsler grid: Hand hosted chart featuring horizontal and vertical lines, generally white on black color background, supplied to test for main visual ar defects.

Angle: Drainage area the the eye formed between the cornea and the iris , called for the angular shape, i m sorry is why you see the word "angle" in the various glaucoma names.

Anisometropia: condition of the eye in i m sorry they have unequal refractive power .

Anterior chamber: an are between the cornea and also the crystalline lens , which includes aqueous feeling .

Anterior ocular segment: part of the eye anterior come the crystalline lens , consisting of the cornea , anterior room , iris and also ciliary body .

Antioxidants: medium of funds that ruin or neutralize complimentary radicals, molecules that have been implicated as one causative factor in the stimulation the abnormal to move reproduction (cancer) and cellular destruction (aging).

Antireflective coating: Coating ~ above the prior or back of glasses lenses, i m sorry minimizes the glare because that patients who are exceptionally bothered through glare.

Aphakia: lack of the lens that the eye.

Aqueous humor: Transparent liquid occupying the anterior room and maintains eye pressure.

Argon laser: maker used come treat glaucoma (usually open up angle) and diabetic retinopathy making use of a heat beam.

ARMD: period related macular degeneration: Destruction and also loss that the photoreceptors in the macula an ar of the retina leading to decreased main vision and, in progressed cases, blindness.

Asthenopia: Eyestrain.

Astigmatic Keratotomy (AK): Treats astigmatism by flattening the cornea v arc-shaped incisions in that periphery, comparable to RK.

Astigmatism: structural defects of the eye in i m sorry the light rays from a regarded object execute not fulfill in a solitary focal point, causing blurred pictures being sent out to the brain. An astigmatic cornea is not perfectly rounded prefer a basketball yet has an rarely often, rarely shape much more like the next of a football. Astigmatism is most often merged with myopia or hyperopia .

Automated Lamellar Keratoplasy (ALK): Procedure that predates LASIK eye surgery and also is not generally used any more.

Automated perimeter: Computer-driven an equipment used to plot defects in the visual field (peripheral vision or side vision). Usually, this is a large hemisphere shell into which the patient"s head is placed. Various points the lights, occasionally of various sizes, intensities and also colors space projected top top the screen. The patience then suggests whether the light is seen and also the response is recorded. The computer then plots the efficient visual thresholds within the targeted visual field.

Axis: Optical - a directly line with the centers that both surface of a lens. Visual - a directly line indigenous the thing of vision to the fovea of the eye.

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BCVA: best corrected visual acuity.

Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA): Best feasible vision a person can attain with corrective lenses, measure in regards to Snellen present on one eye graph .

Beta-carotene: Member the the carotinoid family members of vitamins, a precursor come vitamin A, assumed to be useful to the eyes, helpful in treating diseases such together glaucoma.

Bifocals: Lenses containing 2 focal lengths, normally arranged with the focus for distance above and near emphasis below.

Binocular vision: Simultaneous use of the two eyes. Normal binocular vision yields a stereoscopic image and parallax-induced depth perception.

Blepharitis: Inflamation the the eyelids, a usual problem which often tends to it is in reoccuring in nature.

Blind spot: The area that the optic disk whereby the optic nerve fibers departure the eye and also where there space no light-sensitive cells. This small area have the right to be measured and also in glaucoma, as the nerve yarn die, the remote spot tends to enlarge and elongate. This is among the diagnostic hallmarks of glaucoma.

Bowman"s membrane: exceptionally thin second layer the the cornea , situated in between the epithelium and also stroma , thought to be responsible for epithelium adhesion.

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Capsular haze: A slim film the scar organization that occasionally creates on the posterior capsule behind the intraocular lens implant adhering to cataract surgery and also removed with a Nd:Yag laser.

Caruncle: Small, red part of the corner of the eye that contains modified sebaceous and sweat glands.

Cataract: progressive clouding of the crystalline lens resulting in lessened vision or eventual blindness, correctable by cataract surgical treatment .

Cataract surgery: removal of a cataract , replacing it v an intraocular lens implant .

Central islands: main islands room a little mound of central tissue, which can interfere through vision and also occur as soon as the laser beam does no uniformly eliminate tissue in the facility of the treatment.

Choroid membrane: Dark, vascular , thin skin-like tissue, situated between the sclera and also the retina , creating the middle coat of the eye. The choroid membrane nourishes the outer portions that the retina and also absorbs overfill light.

Chronic: Of long duration, walk on for some time.

Closed angle glaucoma: Glaucoma conditions emerging suddenly (acute).

Ciliary body: part of the eye that connects the choroid membrane come the iris . Produces aqueous humor that fills the front component of the eye and also maintains eye pressure.

Ciliary muscle: Muscle attached to the crystalline lens responsible for focus (the exact same as ciliary human body , yet used in a different context).

Clear Lens exploit (CLE): Procedure in i m sorry the eye"s natural clear crystalline lens is removed and also replaced v an intraocular lens implant , using the same method as cataract surgery.

Colorblindness: Inaccurate term for a absence of perceptual sensitivity to certain colors. Absolute shade blindness is almost unknown.

Color vision: ability to perceive differences in color, including hue, saturation and brightness.

Comprehensive eye exam: testimonial of the complete visual system.

Conductive Keratoplasty (CK): Procedure in i m sorry a radio frequency probe, fairly than a laser , is supplied to reshape the cornea . It is authorized for low to center hyperopia in patient over period 40, however it walk not appear to have the precision that LASIK .

Cones: one of the two species of light-sensitive cells, concentrated in the facility of the retina (also watch rods ). There are around 6.5 million cap in each eye - 150,000 cones in every square millimeter - responsible for detailed visual acuity and also the ability to watch in color.

Conjunctiva: Mucous membrane lining the inner surface ar of the eyelids and also covering the front part of the sclera (white component of eye), responsible for keeping the eye moist.

Conjunctivitis: Inflammation or irritation of the conjunctiva . Symptoms deserve to be current in just one eye, or that can impact both eyes and include redness that the eye or the edge of the eyelids, ede of the eyelids or itching.

Contact lens: Small, thin removable plastic lens worn straight on the front of the eyeballs, normally used instead of plain eyeglasses because that correction or defense of vision.

Convergence: transforming of the eyes inwards so that they space both "aimed" towards a nearobject gift viewed. Normally works in harmony v aberration i m sorry is used for more distant objects.

Cornea: Transparent tissue that creates the front component of the eyeball, spanning the iris and also pupil. The cornea is the first part that the eye that bends (or refract s) the light and provides most of the concentrating power.

Corneal curvature: form of the front of the eye.

Corneal mapping, topography: A tool supplied to watch the refractive difficulties that might be existing in the cornea. Corneal topography is supplied not only for screening all patients prior to refractive surgery prefer LASIK but additionally for installation contacts.

Corneal relaxing incisions (CRIs): True corneal incisions, such together RK and AK .

Corneal transplant (penetrating keratoplasty): Surgical procedure of grafting a instead of cornea onto an eye.

Crystalline lens: twin convex, transparent part of the eye, located behind the iris and also in former of the vitreous body. Offer in conjunction through the cornea come refract incoming light ray of irradiate onto the retina .

Cylinder: describes the degree of astigmatism (uneven roundness) existing in the cornea.

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Depth perception: capability of the vision system to perceive the relative positions of objects in the intuitive field.

Detached retina: A retinal losing occurs as soon as the retina is pulled away from that normal place in the earlier of the eye.

Diabetes mellitus: Chronic metabolic disorder defined by a lack of insulin cheap and/or boosted cellular resistance to insulin, causing elevated blood levels of straightforward sugars (glucose) and including symptom involving damages to the eyes, kidneys, worried system and also vascular mechanism

Diabetes type I (IDDM): Insulin dependent, result from devastation of the insulin developing pancreatic islet cell

Diabetes form II (NIDDM): Non-insulin dependent, result from tissue resistance come insulin

Diabetic retinopathy: degradation of retina together blood vessels in diabetic patients, possibly resulting in vision loss.

Dilated, dilation: Enlargment the the pupil (space in the center of the iris).

Diopter: Unit of measure up of the refractive power of an optical lens (equal come the power of a lens with a focal street of one meter). A an unfavorable diopter worth (such together -3D) signifies an eye with myopia and also positive diopter value (such as +3D) signifies one eye through hyperopia .

Diplopia: problem in i beg your pardon a solitary object is regarded as two; also called dual vision.

Divergence: transforming of the eyes outwards so that they room both "aimed" towards the object gift viewed. Typically works in harmony through convergence.

Double vision: exact same as diplopia.

Dry eye: A common condition the occurs as soon as the eyes perform not develop enough tears to keep the eye moist and also comfortable.

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Emmetropia: Twenty-twenty vision.

Endothelium: Cellular organization that covers the inner surface of the eye within the closed cavity, generally referring come the cornea .

Enhancement: an additional LASIK procedure, used in the refinement of an individual Best Vision.

Epithelium: Cellular organization that consist of the external surface of the eye. Consists of one or numerous layers of cells with only small intercellular material.

Esophoria: position of the eye in one over-converged place compensated by the external eye muscle so the the eyes execute not appear turned inward.

Esotropia: place of the eyes in an over-converged place so that non-fixating eye is rotate inward. One eye looks straight; one look at inward.

Excimer laser: Laser used in LASIK surgical treatment that operates in the ultraviolet wavelength, creating a cool beam.

Exophoria: position of the eye in an over-diverged place compensated by the exterior eye muscle so the the eyes execute not show up turned outward.

Exotropia: place of the eyes in an over-diverged place so that non-fixating eye is turn outward. One eye looks directly ahead and one turns outward.

Extracapsular cataract surgery: surgery in which the cataract is eliminated in one item through a bigger incision, i m sorry usually calls for several stitches.

Extraocular muscles: six muscles that manage eye movement. Five originate indigenous the back of the orbit; the other one originates indigenous the lower rim of the orbit. Four move the eye up, down, left and also right, the other two manage the twisting motion of the eye as soon as the head tilts. All six muscles occupational in unison; as soon as they carry out not role properly, the condition is dubbed strabismus .

Eye chart: Technically called a Snellen chart, a printed visual acuity chart consisting that Snellen optotypes, which space specifically created letters of the alphabet arranged in rows of decreasing letter size.

Eyelid: one of two people of two movable, protective, folds of flesh that cover and also uncover the prior of the eyeball.

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Farsighted: usual term for hyperopia .

FDA: Abbreviation because that the Food and also Drug Administration. It is the United states governmental company responsible for the evaluation and approval of medical devices.

Femtosecond laser: offered in the IntraLASIK procedure to do a more secure and an ext precise flap 보다 the older mechanically microkeratome technology, it supplies a longer wavelength, smaller sized spot, and shorter duration per pulse than the excimer laser provided to reshape the cornea .

ar of vision: whole area which have the right to be checked out without changing the gaze.

Flap: component of the cornea consisting of epithelium , Bowman"s membrane and also some stroma , reduced with a continuing to be hinge and lifted increase as part of the LASIK procedure.

flicker & floaters: irradiate spots or streaks and also dark relocating specks as result of the vitreous traction ~ above the retinal (light flashes) and solid vitreous product or blood (floaters).

Fluorescein angiography: Diagnostic test by which the veins deep inside the eye space examined. Dye is injected into a vein in the arm and circulated by the blood to the ago of the eye, enabling for visual examination.

Fovea: small depression in the retina , the point where vision is most acute.

Fundus: Furthest point at the earlier of the eye, consist of of the retina , choroid membrane , sclera , optic disc and blood vessels, checked out by means of the ophthalmoscope.

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Ghost image: Faint second image of the object you are viewing.

giant papillary conjunctivitis: type of conjunctivitis wherein bump or ridges form on the within of eyelids, which make wearing call lenses uncomfortable; in fact, this condition is frequently caused by overwearing of certain contact lenses

Glare: Scatter from bright light that decreases vision.

Glaucoma: Painless condition of the eye defined by boosted pressure within; left untreated it leads to a gradual handicap of sight often resulting in blindness.

Gonioscopy: city hall procedure making use of a mirror/lens maker placed straight upon the cornea that is used to see the drainage area dubbed "the angle" v which aqueous fluid exits the eyeball.

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Halos: Rings around lights because of optical imperfections in, or in former of, the eye.

Haptics: The arms of an intraocular lens , which holds it in ar once placed inside the eye.

Haze: Corneal clouding that causes the emotion of looking with smoke or fog.

Heterophoria: continuous tendency of one eye to deviate in one or one more direction due to imperfect balance the ocular muscles.

Holmium laser: A laser i m sorry operates in the infrared wavelength, creating a warm beam. That is used in Laser Thermokeratoplasty surgical procedure and an ext commonly in operation procedures involving the fragmentation of stones and also fibrous organization ablation .

Hyperopia: additionally called farsightednesss, hyperopia is the i can not qualify to see near objects as plainly as far-off objects, and also the need for house to see remote objects clearly.

Hypoxia: Deficiency of oxygen it is provided to a tissue.

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Image: light reflected right into the eye, off objects in front of the eye. This light includes all the information around the objects (such together color, shadow. Motion and also detail) that are analyzed to the brain and permit you to "see" (know about the objects).

Inflammation: Body"s reaction come trauma, infection, or a foreign substance, often connected with pain, heat, redness, swelling, and/or ns of function.

informed Consent Form: record disclosing the risks, benefits, and options to a procedure.

In Situ: Term definition "in place".

Intracapsular cataract surgery: Cataract surgery in which both the lens and also capsule are fully removed, a rarely provided procedure.

Intraocular lens implant (IOL): Permanent, artificial lens surgically placed inside the eye to replace the crystalline lens complying with cataract surgery or clear lens exploit .

Intraocular pressure (IOP): liquid pressure within the eye created by the regular production and also drainage the aqueous fluid in the anterior chamber .

Iridotomy: treatment for closed-angle glaucoma, one of the many varieties of glaucoma, typically done with a laser .

Iris: Colored component of the eye. Elastic, pigmented, muscular organization in prior of the crystalline lens the regulates the amount of light that enters the eye by adjusting the dimension of the pupil in the center.

Ischemia: border or blockage that blood flow through a blood vessel. Ischemia is a causative certified dealer of specific heart attacks and also strokes and is associated in various varieties of visual field losses.

Intacs: surgically implanted plastic half rings that change the shape of the cornea .

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Keratectomy: surgical removal the cornea together tissue.

Keratitis: Inflammation that the cornea

Keratotomy: surgical incision (cut) that the cornea . .

Keratoconous: Rare, serious, degenerative cornea together disease, in which the cornea thins and also assumes the shape of a cone.

Keratomileusis: Carving that the cornea to reshape it.

Keratoplasty: surgical reshaping that the cornea .

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Lacrimal apparatus: part of the eye the produces tears.

LASEK: Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis, a refractive surgery in which the epithelium is cut with a well blade, dubbed a trephine, and involves displacing the cornea together epithelium together a sheet and then replacing it come (theoretically) act as a herbal bandage.

Laser: an equipment that generates one intense and also highly focused beam of light. Acronym for: light Amplification by Simulated emissions of Radiation. (Also see: holmium laser , argon laser , Nd:YAG laser , femtosecond laser , and also excimer laser )

Laser Thermokeratoplasty (LTK): Holmium "hot" beam laser, instead of the "cool" beam excimer laser, is supplied to treat farsighted patients and is very limited in that application; the results are not long lasting.

LASIK: Laser assisted In-Situ Keratomilieusis, a refractive surgical procedure in which Excimer laser ablation is perform under a flap on the cornea to exactly refractive errors .

Lazy eye: Amblyopia, an eye condition noted by diminished vision not correctable by glasses or contact lenses and is no due to any type of eye disease.

legit blind: 20/200 vision and over is the qualification the legal remote in the unified States.

Lens: same as the crystalline lens . Double convex, clear part of the eye, behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor. Offer to refract the various rays of irradiate so as to type an picture on the retina .

Lenticular: unique non- cataract lenses because that patients who have actually cataracts.

Lid speculum: A surgical tool that holds the eyelids open and which allows the operated doctor to gain accessibility to the eye through minimal pressure on the globe.

Limbal be sure incisions (LRI): little incisions placed on the far peripheral element of the cornea causing a cornea that is much more round, because that correcting astigmatism .

Limbus: thin area the connects the cornea and the sclera .

short vision: Condition occurring when ordinary eyeglasses or call lenses are unable to carry a patient"s sight up to normal sharpness.

LTK (Laser heat Keratoplasty): Holmium "hot" beam laser, instead of the "cool" beam excimer laser, is offered to treat farsighted patients and is very limited in that application; the results are not long lasting.

Lutein: Member the the carotinoid family of vitamins, comparable to beta-carotene, believed to be valuable to the eyes, useful in treating conditions such together glaucoma.

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Macula: Yellow spot on the retina , wherein the photoreceptors are many dense and also responsible because that the main vision. Has the biggest concentration of cones, responsible because that visual acuity and also the capability to view in color.

Macular edema: repertoire of liquid in and also under the macular section of the retina .

Macular degeneration: an illness of the macula, which results in the ns of central vision.

Meridian: Orientation the a particular curve, regularly used in relation to the cornea .

Microkeratome: mechanically surgical machine that is affixed to the eye by usage of a vacuum ring. When secured, a an extremely sharp blade cut a great of the cornea at a predetermined depth.

Miosis: Pupillary constriction.

Monovision: Purposeful convey of one eye for close to vision and also the other eye for street vision.

Mydriasis: Pupillary dilation.

Myopia: additionally called nearsightedness or shortsightedness, the inability to see distant objects as clearly as close to objects.

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Near suggest of accommodation: Closest suggest in front of the eyes that an object may be clearly focused.

Near suggest of convergence: Maximum degree the 2 eyes have the right to be turned inwards.

Nearsighted: usual term for myopia .

Neodymium YAG Laser: Laser used to treat Posterior Capsular Opacification (PCO) as well as open up angle glaucoma Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty

Neovascularization: Often associated with diabetes, involves the development of brand-new blood vessels, regularly fragile and also inappropriate for the location.

Nerve fibers/axons: extensions of photoreceptors that type the nerve bundle that is dubbed the optic nerve.

Neuro-ophthalmology: Subspecialty that treats the nervous and vascular solution that involve the eye.

common vision: Occurs when light is focused directly on the retina fairly than in front or behind it.

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Ocular herpes: A recurrent viral infection resulted in by the herpes simplex virus. Ocular herpes represents the most typical infectious reason of corneal remote in the united States.

Ocular hypertension: Elevated fluid pressure. The normal pressure is about 10 come 21mmHg, v the bulk of world falling between 13 and 19. End 21 is thought about suspicious. Over 24 cautiously involved - warranting immediate investigation. Over 30 is thought about urgent and a potential emergency situation.

OD: Abbreviation standing because that "oculus dextrum" meaning: ideal eye.

ONH: Optic nerve, optic nerve head. A bundle of nerve fibers around the diameter the pencil the passes v the ago of the eyeball, and connects come the nerve fiber great of the retina . It deserve to be observed directly with one instrument dubbed an ophthalmoscope.

open angle glaucoma: Glaucoma conditions of lengthy duration (chronic).

Ophthalmologist: one ophthalmologist is either a medical doctor (MD) or an osteopathic physician (D.O.) that is qualified and also especially trained come diagnose and also treat every eye and visual system problems, both medically and surgically, and also diagnose general diseases of the body.

Ophthalmoscope: Instrument offered to examine the interior of the eye: it is composed of a perforated winter arranged come reflect light from a small bulb right into the eye.

Ophthalmoscopy: examination of the internal structures of the eye making use of an illumination and also magnification system.

Optic disc: The head of the optic nerve that is created by the conference of all retina together nerve fibers.

Optic nerve: Bundle that nerve fibers that connect the retina through the brain. The optic nerve carries signals of irradiate to the area of the mind called the visual cortex, which assembles the signals into images dubbed vision.

Optician: expert who designs, verifies and dispenses lenses, frames and also other fabricated optical tools upon the prescription of one ophthalmologist or an optometrist.

Optometrist: Eye treatment professional, graduate of optometry school, offers non-surgical visual care. Especially educated and trained to study the eyes, and determine visual acuity and other vision problems and also ocular abnormalities. One optometrist prescribes glasses and contact lenses to enhance visual acuity.

Orbit: Boney socket include the eyeball, fat, extraocular muscles, nerves and blood vessels.

Orthokeratology (OK): Non-surgical procedure using contact lenses to transform the form of the cornea to effect a readjust in the refractive error .

Orthoptics: practice designed to aid the eye muscles occupational together to boost visual perception.

OS: Abbreviation standing because that "oculus sinistrum" meaning: left eye

Overcorrection: Occurence in refract ive surgical treatment where the achieved amount of mediate is an ext than desired; in LASIK , generally due to a patent"s over-response to the laser ablation.

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Pachymeter: instrument that steps the distance between the top of the cornea together epithelium and the bottom the the cornea together endothelium provided as diagnostic testing maker measuring because that cornea l thickness.

Pachymetry: test for measuring cornea together thickness.

Papilledema: Non-inflammatory swelling/elevation the the optic nerve often as result of increased intracranial push or space-occupying tumor.

PD: used on prescriptions to show the distance in between the pupils of both eyes.

Pellucid marginal degeneration: A bilateral, noninflammatory, peripheral corneal thinning disorder, which is defined by a peripheral tape of thinning of the worse cornea.

Peripheral vision: capability to consciousness the presence, motion, or color of objects external the direct line the vision.

personal Best Vision: Best possible vision for each individual as corrected.

Phacoemulsification cataract surgery: Cataract remove procedure which involves making a small incision, around 1/8" long. A pen-like instrument, placed through the opening, is supplied to emulsify and also aspirate the clouded lens material, utilizing gentle sound waves. Then an intraocular lens is placed into place.

Phacofracture cataract surgery: Cataract surgery in which the lens is gotten rid of through a tiny incision by "fracturing" it right into several tiny segments, rarely offered today.

Phakic Intraocular Lenses (IOLs): put inside the eye there is no removing the organic lens, and performs lot like an internal contact lens.

Phoropter: A common maker found in many eye doctor"s offices, v mulitple lenses, supplied to measure up refractive errors. A phoropter calculates the prescription required for corrective lenses.

Photocoagulation: concentrating of an effective light light ray onto tiny spots on the back of the eye, creating heat, which seals retina together tears and cauterizes small blood vessels.

Photophobia: Sensitivity come light.

Photoreceptors: microscopic light-sensitive cells the are located in the retina referred to as rods and also hat . There are roughly 7 million cones and also 125 million rods

picture Refractive Keratectomy (PRK): surgical procedure in i beg your pardon a tiny area top top the cornea together epithelium (surface cells) is gently refined away. The laser then reshapes the cornea l surface ar in specifically the same way as for LASIK surgery.

Pingecula: Irritation resulted in degeneration of the conjunctiva resulting in a thickening and yellowing of the generally thin transparent tissue.

Pink eye: kind of conjunctivitis, generally seen in children.

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Posterior capsule: The slim membrane in the eye the holds the crystalline lens in place.

Posterior chamber: The back section the the eye"s interior.

Posterior optical segment: component of the eye posterior (behind) come the crystalline lens , consisting of the vitreous, choroid retina and optic nerve.

Posterior Vitreous offhanded (PVD): Separation of the vitreous body from its attachments from the retina together surface as result of shrinkage indigenous degenerative or inflammatory problems or trauma. An age-related condition.

Prelex: operation procedure the attempts to exactly presbyopia.

Presbyopia: i can not qualify to keep a clear image (focus) together objects are relocated closer. Presbyopia is early out to diminished elasticity that the lens with raising age.

Prescription: amount of vision convey necessary, created in a kind that deserve to be utilized throughout the manufacture of corrective lenses or come configure a laser machine.

PRK: Acronym for Photo-Refractive Keratectomy, which is a procedure entailing the removal of the surface ar layer of the cornea ( epithelium ) by gentle scraping and use of a computer-controlled excimer laser to reshape the stroma .

steady lenses: Bifocal or trifocal lenses which appear to be single vision v no distinctive lines between the various focal lengths.

Punctal occlusion: therapy for dry eye in which plugs are put into the punctum in order to retain lubricating tears naturally produced by the eye.

Punctum: The feet in the upper and lower eyelids through which tears departure the eye. In patients through dry eyes, short-term or long-term plugs might be placed to help keep tears in the eye. Tears circulation through the punctum come the nose, i m sorry is why people often endure a runny nose once crying.

Pupil: black color circular opened in the center of iris v which irradiate passes into the crystalline lens . It alters size in solution to how much irradiate is being received by the eye, larger in dim light conditions and also smaller in brighter lighting conditions.

Pupillary response: Constriction and dilation the the pupil as result of stimulation by irradiate or accommodation.

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Radial Keratotomy (RK): Outdated procedure once provided to correct mild to moderate myopia , through which making a series of spoke-like incisions roughly its periphery flattens the cornea .

Refract: To bend aside, together in "the crystalline lens refract s the light as it passes through", or to measure the degree the eye or lenses bend light, as in "the medical professional refract s a patient"s eyes".

Refraction: test to identify the refractive strength of the eye; also, the bending of light as it passes from one medium into another.

Refractive errors: The degree of visual distortion or limitation resulted in by insufficient bending of irradiate rays, consists of hyperopia , myopia , and also astigmatism .

Refractive power: ability of an object, such as the eye, to bend light together light passes through it.

Refractive surgery: type of surgical treatment (such as LASIK ) the affects the refract ion of vision.

Retina: class of well sensory tissue that present the inside wall surface of the eye, composed of light perceptible cells known as rods and also cap . Acts choose the movie in a camera to record images, transforms the images into electric signals, and also sends the signals to the mind by way of the optic nerve.

Retinal Detachment: problem wherein retina breaks away indigenous the choroid membrane , leading to it to lose nourishment and resulting in lose of vision unless effectively surgically repaired.

RK: Abbreviation for " radial keratotomy ", an outdated procedure once used to exactly mild come moderate myopia , by which making a collection of spoke-like incisions approximately its periphery flattens the cornea .

Rods: among the two types of light-sensitive cells, located primarily in the side areas of the retina (also see cones). Over there are around 125 million rods , which space responsible for visual sensitivity to movement, shapes, light and dark (black and also white) and also the capability to check out in dim light.

regime eye exam: To check the as whole condition of the eye and prescribe corrective measures such together glasses, contact lenses or LASIK .

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Schirmer test: Test for dry eyes, which provides a thin strip of filter paper placed at the sheet of the eye.

Sclera: White part of the eye. Difficult covering the (with the cornea ) forms the external, security coat of the eye.

Scotoma: Area that partial or complete loss the vision surrounding by an area of common vision, together what can happen in advanced ARMD or glaucoma.

solitary vision: Lenses with just one focal length length.

Slit-Lamp: Ophthalmic instrument creating a slim beam of light used to illuminate and also examine the external and also internal components of the eye.

Sloan eye chart: A usual chart offered to test visual acuity v black letter of various sizes against a white background.

Snellen eye chart: Most common chart offered to check visual acuity with black letter of various sizes against a white background.

Snellen lines: Snellen optotypes i ordered it in horizontal rows dubbed "lines".

Snellen optotypes: Specifically formed letters of the alphabet i ordered it in rows of to decrease letter size on the Snellen chart.

Sphere: focusing power of the corrective lens.

Stereoscopic vision: capability to watch in three-dimension.

Stereopsis: ability to perceive three-dimensional depth.

Strabismus: problem occurs when the muscles of the eye carry out not aligned properly and binocular vision is no present. Patients with a history of strabismus may develop twin vision after ~ refractive eye surgery.

Stroma: Middle, thickest class of organization in the cornea .

Suppression: inability to perceive every of component of objects in the field of vision the one eye.

Suspensory ligament the lens: collection of yarn that connect the ciliary body the the eye with the lens, holding the in place; ; also known together zonules.

sympathetic ophthalmia: Inflammation the one eye adhering to inflammation in the other eye.

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Tonometry: Procedure for the measure of intraocular pressure. A test because that glaucoma.

Topography: A tool offered to see the refractive problems that might be existing in the cornea. Corneal topography is used not only for screening all patients before refractive surgery favor LASIK but additionally for fitting contacts.

Toric: Lens (eyeglasses, intraocular lens , or contact lens) the is the warped (astigmatic) opposite to that of the eye, thereby canceling out the error.

Trabecular meshwork: Drainage networks located inside the eye.

Trabeculoplasty: A procedure because that the therapy of glaucoma, using a laser ( Argon or Nd:YAG ). Trabeculoplasty remodels the trabecular meshwork in order to increase drainage of aqueous and also lower the intraocular press .

Trifocals: Lenses containing 3 focal lengths, typically arranged with the focus for distance above, intermediate distance in the middle, and also near vision below.

Twenty-twenty, 20/20 vision: To have actually 20/20 vision means that when you was standing 20 feet far from the Snellen eye graph you have the right to see what the bulk of human being can check out at that same distance.

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UCVA: Uncorrected visual acuity.

Uveal tract: Pigmented, middle layers the the eye, which encompass the choroid , ciliary human body and also iris .

Uveitis: Inflammation that any part of the uveal tract.

Ultrasound waves: Sound waves above 20,000 vibrations per second, over the variety audible to the human being ear, used in medical diagnosis and also surgery.

Ultrasonography: Recordings that the echoes the ultrasound waves sent into the eye and reflected from the frameworks inside the eye or orbit. Ultrasonography is supplied to make measurements and also to detect and also localize tumors and retina l detachments.

Ultraviolet radiation: Radiant energy with a wavelength just below that that the clearly shows light. UV-c is the shortest wavelength in ~ 200-280 nm and is soaked up by the atmosphere prior to reaching the surface. UV-b, in ~ 280-315 nm is the burn rays of the sun and also damages many living tissue. UV-a, at 315-400 nm is the tanning rays of the sun and also is rather damaging to details tissues. UV radiation has actually been described as a contributing element to part eye an illness processes, which result in ARMD and cataract s and causes exposure keratitis.

Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA): Best possible vision a person can accomplish without corrective lenses measure in regards to Snellen currently on an eye graph .

Undercorrection: Occurence in refract ive surgical procedure where the accomplished amount of convey is much less than desired; in LASIK , frequently due to a patience under-responding come the laser treatment.

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Vascular: having actually to do with moving blood.

Vision: The capacity of the brain to see and interpret what is in front of the eyes.

Vision therapy: Orthoptics, vision training, eye exercises. Treatment procedure for the development of intuitive perception and/or coordination of the two eyes, for much more efficient and also comfortable binocular vision.

visual acuity: Clearness the vision; the capability to identify details and shapes, which depends upon the sharpness the the retina together image.

visual cortex: That component of the brain responsible because that vision.

visual field: Area or extent of an are visible to an eye in a provided position of gaze. Over there is a central visual ar - the area directly in front of us, and a peripheral visual field - ours "side vision". The fields of each eye partly overlap. We perform not perceive the blind spots from each eye because the area that is lacking in one eye is present in the other.

VISX CustomVue Procedure: WaveScan-driven laser vision correction with the potential to produce far better vision 보다 is possible with glasses or call lenses, and allow surgeons come measure and correct distinctive imperfections in every individual"s vision.

VISX STAR S4 Excimer laser System: Highly progressed laser an innovation platform, the VISX STAR S4 combines change Spot Scanning (VSS) and ActiveTrak 3-D energetic Eye Tracking in addition to the WavePrint.

Vitreous humor, fluid, or body: Jelly-like, colorless, transparent problem occupying the greater component of the cavity the the eye, and all the an are between the crystalline lens and also the retina .

Vitrectomy: operation removal the vitreous humor that is diseased or has lost the transparency.

Wavefront: Wavefront technology produces a in-depth map of the eye. The information is transferred to the laser via computer software.

YAG laser surgery: Properly called Nd:Yag laser capsulotomy, a procedure using a Nd:YAG (neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser, used mainly to treat second cataract s (capsular haze) that happen subsequent to the major cataract procedure, or to relieve boosted pressure in ~ the eye native acute angle-closure glaucoma via a peripheral iridotomy. That can additionally be offered to treat open angle glaucoma in a procedure called selective laser trabeculoplasty.

The eye professionals of east Valley Ophthalmology execute advanced modern technology diagnostic testing and treatment, and taking the time essential to administer each patient with details needed to totally understand their condition and to accomplish their best possible visual outcome.

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East sink OphthalmologyEye medical professionals - Mesa, Arizona

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