Is a "water-rich" country?

Assessing the "water-richness" the is a complex process involving many geographic, physical, economic, and also social issues."s fresh water deserve to be found in the type of rivers, lakes, groundwater, ice, and snow. Since on one average annual basis, Canadian rivers discharge close come 7% the the world"s renewable water supply, shows up to have actually a generous water endowment. Aggregate measures, however, can be deceiving.

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Some locations in the inner of brothers Columbia, the southern Prairies, and also the high Arctic endure arid or semi-arid climates (less than 35centimetres of yearly precipitation). In this areas, the water supply is further restricted because the groundwater often tends to it is in salty and unsuitable for plenty of uses.

Approximately 60% of"s new water drains to the north, when 85% that the population lives within 300 kilometres of the says border. Many locations have limited water supplies, and water access constitutes a major concern for water management. Even in the an excellent Lakes basin, the world"s largest freshwater lake system, some off-lake locations in southern Ontario suffer periodic and even chronic water shortage, and also groundwater "mining" takes location (i.e., much more water is taken the end of the aquifer 보다 is being recharged). In this region, a significant increase in the consumptive usage or a reduction in the supply of great Lakes waters would an outcome in a lowering that long-term typical levels the the lakes.

In many of the worked out areas of the country, water is exceptionally polluted and also is one of two people unsuitable for human, animal, and industrial usage or usable just at a fairly high expense of treatment.

1 cubic metre per 2nd (m3/s)= 31536 cubic decametres every year (dam3/yr)= 86400 cubic metres per day (m3/d)fills 2000 backyard swimming pools every dayfills 1000 rail tank cars every day

How carry out you measure water in lakes and also rivers?

Environment"s Water survey of, along with many contributing agencies, presently measures the rate of circulation (discharge) in rivers and also records the level of lakes and rivers at more than 2900locations in

Water levels are review manually by gauge readers or continuously tape-recorded either electronically or ~ above graph document or in digital form. Rate of flow (or discharge) requires multiple dimensions of channel depth, width, and also flow velocity to productivity the average discharge in the currently crossing because that a provided water level. Measurements deserve to be made electronically indigenous a bridge, through wading into a stream, by boat, or from a cableway strung throughout the river. In winter, the measurements are made through the ice. With sufficient measurements of circulation over a variety of water levels (including extreme lows and also highs), a water level-discharge relationship is established at each location so the the discharge can be computed from measured water levels. Historic records from end 8000active and discontinued sites permit the estimation of streamflow at ungauged locations.

This table shows typical river operation in meters cubed every second. The annual average, and the highest and lowest day-to-day averages are additionally indicated.

Typical flow flows(from shortest to highest everyday average, m3/second) location River annual average daily average highest Lowest
Prince Edward Island Dunk flow at wall Road 2.55 84.7 0.212
Saskatchewan Qu"Appelle River near Lumsden 5.44 436 0
New Brunswick Lepreau river at Lepreau 7.37 340 0.028
Manitoba Manigotagan River near Manigotagan 8.93 103 0.065
Ontario Rideau river at Ottawa 37.2 583 1.48
Newfoundland Gander river at large Chute 119 1170 2.78
Alberta Athabaska flow at Hinton 175 1200 10.8
Yukon Yukon river at Whitehorse 243 646 32.6
Saskatchewan South Saskatchewan flow at Saskatoon 254 3940 14.2
Quebec Rivière aux Outardes à la Centrale de Chute-aux-Outardes 387 2830 10.5
New Brunswick Saint man River below Mactaquac 809 11100 21.5
Ontario Ottawa flow at Britannia 1180 5060 245
Newfoundland Churchill River over Upper Muskrat Falls 1740 6820 253
British Columbia Fraser river at Hope 2720 15200 340
Ontario Niagara flow at Queenston 5880 9760 2440
Ontario St.Lawrence river at Cornwall 7350 10700 4500
Northwest Territories Mackenzie flow at Norman Wells 8480 33300 1680

Why perform you should know how much water has?

Water level and discharge details is important for the wise administration of"s water resources. Because that example,

to allocate water in between various customers to manage water sources or minimization the results of extreme flows (e.g., overwhelming protection, floodplain mapping, diversion canals, and also irrigation) to design and also construct bridges, canals, culverts, roadways, water supplies, watering facilities, and also countless various other structures come plan and conduct ecological programs and assessments related to water quality, fisheries, and also wildlife habitat to ensure that the nation"s water sources are arisen in a manner that conserves and protects the environment.

Which are the largest bodies the water in

Our rivers and lakes located north that 60degrees latitude constitute few of"s biggest water bodies. The Mackenzie River, for example, is over 4000kilometres long and is the country"s biggest river. Good Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, is the world"s ninth largest lake (by area). The St.Lawrence-Great Lakes drainage container is the largest in southerly


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Longest rivers in The illustration mirrors that the longest rivers in room as follows: Albany River: 980 kilometres; Severn River: 980 kilometres; Assiniboine River: 1070 kilometres; Liard River: 1120 kilometres; Yukon river (Canadian portion): 1150 kilometres; Athabasca River: 1230 kilometres; Ottawa River: 1270 kilometres; north Saskatchewan River: 1290 kilometres; Fraser River: 1370 kilometres; peace River: 1540 kilometres; Churchill river (Saskatchewan): 1610 kilometres; Nelson River: 2580 kilometres; St. Lawrence River: 3060 kilometres; Mackenzie River: 4240 kilometres.

*Canadian part onlyNote: Numbers have been rounded


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Largest lakes in The illustration reflects that the largest lakes in are as follows: Lake Melville, Newfoundland: 3200 square kilometres Amadjuak Lake, Nunavut: 3200 square kilometres Lake that the Woods, Ontario and Manitoba (Canadian portion): 3300 square kilometres Dubawnt, Northwest Territories: 3800 square kilometres Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba: 4800 square kilometer Lake Nipigon, Ontario: 4900 square kilometer Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba: 5400 square kilometer Nettilling Lake, Nunavut: 5800 square kilometre Smallwood Reservoir, Newfoundland: 6700 square kilometer Reindeer Lake, Saskatchewan and also Manitoba: 6800 square kilometres Lake Athabasca, Saskatchewan: 7800 square kilometre Lake Ontario, Ontario (Canadian portion):10 200 square kilometre Lake Erie, Ontario (Canadian portion): 12 800 square kilometer Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba: 24 200 square kilometres an excellent Slave Lake, Northwest Territories: 28 500 square kilometer Lake Superior, Ontario (Canadian portion): 29 800 square kilometres good Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: 31 400 square kilometres Lake Huron, Ontario (Canadian portion) : 38 300 square kilometer Note: Numbers have been rounded. The complete area includes islands.

*Canadian portion onlyNotes: 1. Area in km2 x 1000 2. Complete area including islands3. Numbers have actually been rounded

What percentage of"s new water is found in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut?

The Northwest Territories and Nunavut covering 34% that"s land mass, and have 18% that its lake area. Average yearly runoff developed within the two territories is 18% of the total for, and also another 5% the that full flows right into this area from the south.

The Northwest Territories" and Nunavut"s part of"s fresh water have to be approximated on the communication of the total mean annual flow of rivers, as precise data top top water stored in that is lakes, under the ground, and also in glaciers room unavailable. However, north runoff is less far-ranging than typically perceived since the north is a cold desert. Fairly little water is actually circulating in the hydrologic cycle, because of permafrost conditions, seasonal warehouse of water in snow, and long-term storage in glaciers.

What is meant by sustainable development of water resources?

Many aboriginal peoples of think that one must take into consideration the affect of any decision top top one"s children, grandchildren, and good grandchildren seven generations therefore to ensure the their needs deserve to be accommodated in the future. Sustainable advancement has been identified by the Canadian the supervisory board of Ministers the the environment as "development which ensures that the utilization of resources and also the setting today go not damage prospects because that their use by future generations". Because that example, industrial advance on a river may involve activities that seriously damage our soil, water, and also atmospheric systems.

To do the development "sustainable", environmental, social, and economic planning cannot proceed separately of each other. They should be integrated. Our water resources have to be occurred in harmony through the herbal ecosystem so the neither the water resource nor the plant and animal life dependent on it room depleted or damaged for temporary gain and at the cost of future generations. Long-term economic growth depends on a healthy environment.

Is the water the flows into the seas from lakes and rivers wasted?

Not at all. It is critical part that the an international hydrologic cycle. This water is vital to navigation, recreation, fish and also wildlife support, and also waste dilution, and also so sustains the lifestyles of huge and little communities throughout Even in the least inhabited northern reaches of this country, the seasonal fluctuation of high and low flows strengthens a secure relationship amongst natural pressures such as climate, sediment transport, and freshwater discharge to the maritime environment. Because that example, the Mackenzie flow system has actually two inland deltas and also one the the world"s largest marine deltas, the Mackenzie Delta. (A delta is sediment deposited whereby a flow discharges into a lake or ocean.) most of the birds utilizing the western flyway make their residence in these deltas or use them come rest and feed ~ above their long migrations. North rivers flowing right into the Arctic s are an essential component of the hydrologic cycle and also contribute come this large aquatic ecosystem.

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Mackenzie river basin. Map of the Mackenzie River basin showing its major deltas: the servant River delta at great Slave Lake in the Northwest Territories; the Peace-Ahtasbasca delta at Lake Athabasca in Alberta; and also the Mackenzie delta where the Mackenzie flow enters the Beaufort Sea.