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You are watching: Is rubbing alcohol polar or nonpolar

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Introduction

In the previous tutorial, we looked in ~ the chemistry the water. We saw exactly how water’s polar structure enables water molecules to form hydrogen bond with other water molecules. In this tutorial, we’ll perform a virtual lab the let’s us look at water’s distinct properties: properties that result from hydrogen bonding.

1. A (virtual) lab comparing water and alcohol: What you’ll need

To acquire a sense for the properties of water, we’re walk to do a online lab compare water come alcohol. Since real scientific research is always preferable to online science, I want to encourage you to gain the provides for this lab, and also to independently shot the activities.

Here’s what you’ll need:

Tap water
*
A little bottle of isopropil alcohol. This sort of alcohol is accessible at practically any supermarket or pharmacy. 90% is the best concentration for this lab.SAFETY NOTE: isopropil alcohol is poisonous. Don’t drink it.Also, if you can’t acquire isopropyl alcohol, yet other species of alcohol are obtainable (such together ethyl alcohol), the lab should work perfectly well.Two eyedroppers or plastic pipettes. If you’re using pipettes, brand them, and also put one in the water, and also the various other in the alcohol. If you’re using droppers, to fill one with water, and also one v alcohol.A couple of small beakers, glasses, or cup.Two small record clipsTwo pennies (or two small squares of wax file if girlfriend can’t acquire a penny)Two teaspoons to execute some stirringTable salt (about 2 teaspoons).

2. Background: to compare Water and Isopropyl Alcohol

Based on our last tutorial, you currently know a lot about water. Here’s a fast review that water’s key properties.

Water is a polar molecule.The oxygen next of the molecule has a partially an unfavorable charge (?–)The hydrogens, ~ above the other side, have a partially confident charge(?+).As a result, water molecules kind hydrogen bonds, connecting as shown below.
Water: structural formulaWater molecules forming hydrogen bonds(original source: “3D design hydrogen bond in water” through Qwerter at Czech wikipedia, (slightly modified))

Here’s isopropil alcohol.

Source: “Propan-2-ol-3D-balls” by Jynto via Wikimedia Commons.

Isopropyl alcohol: structural formulaIsopropyl alcohol. This is a ball and also stick model. Each sphere is one atom, associated by a single covalent bond. White = hydrogen, black = carbon, and red = oxygen.
Here’s what you need to know around isopropyl alcohol:

Most of isopropyl alcohol (the 3 carbons and also the hydrogens attached to them) is non-polar.One part of isopropil alcohol is contempt polar. It’s the oxygen and hydrogen top top top. Notice that in the structural formula ~ above the left, the hydrogen (H) has a ?+ (partial confident charge) alongside it, and the oxygen has a ?– (partial negative charge)

So, isopropil alcohol is slightly polar. However it’s much much less polar than water is.

Water:highly polarIsopropyl Alcohol: much less polar than water

Knowing that, let’s do a couple of experiments wherein we to compare them.

3. Six Observations/Experiments to compare Water and also Alcohol

The experiments the follow are manual if you can acquire the materials. However even if friend can’t, do predictions about what will occur will vastly increase the amount the you’ll learn. So acquire out part paper, and, because that each monitoring that follows, create down her answer prior to clicking “show the answer.” I guarantee the you’ll find out a lot much more if friend do.

3.1: Comparing single Drops the Water and Alcohol


Let’s start by predicting the means that a solitary drop of water and a solitary drop the alcohol will certainly look as soon as you put them ~ above a surface prefer a coin or wax paper. Perform the following

In your notes, attract a snapshot of just how you think a single drop of water top top a penny will certainly look, compared with how a solitary drop of alcohol will look. Listed below your drawing, explain why you think the two will be different. Once you’ve made her drawing and prediction, walk ahead and do the experiment if you have materials. Then click “show the answer.”If friend don’t have the materials, click “show the answer” to view the results and to verify your prediction.

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A solitary drop that water top top a pennyA single drop the alcohol top top a penny
Because the water molecules room polar, castle grab ~ above one another through hydrogen bonds. The common attraction the water molecule is called cohesion. This cohesion pulls a fall of water into a spherical shape, because that’s the shape that enable for the preferably number of bonds. Though heaviness is trying to pull every the water molecule down, toward the surface of the penny, the hydrogen bonds save the water droplet in a spherical shape.Because alcohol is therefore much less polar, it can’t resist gravity, and every one of the molecules are pulled down into a level sheet over the penny’s surface.


Use what you just observed come predict the following. How numerous drops the water deserve to you placed onto a penny before the water spills over the side? How countless drops the alcohol prior to the alcohol spills end the side. Make a prediction, offer it a try, and, many importantly, define what’s happening.

When you’re ready, click on “show the answer” to view the results and also to verify her prediction.

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Water on a pennyAlcohol ~ above a penny
There room going to be many variables affecting the exact number of drops. The an essential point is the you should have actually been able to pile many an ext drops that water top top the penny than drops the alcohol.The explanation right here is quite much identical to the one above. The water molecules have much an ext cohesion the alcohol molecules, because they grab top top one one more through hydrogen bonds. Because a sphere allows for the maximum number of connections in between water molecules, the widening drop of water proceeds to maintain that shape. In ~ a details point, the sphere increases to where it overflows the penny, and also water spills out over the side.Because alcohol is for this reason much less polar than water, the can’t withstand gravity, and all of the molecules space pulled down right into a flat sheet over the penny’s surface. This flat sheet have the right to accommodate numerous fewer fall of alcohol than the hydrogen-bond induced ball that’s top top the penny with water.


3.3: speed of Evaporation in Water and Alcohol

This video compares the evaporation for a drop of alcohol (left) v a fall of water (right). I offered my phone as both a surface and also a timer (and climate speeded up the video about 60 times, so the each minute ~ above the clock go by in a second).


 Explain why the evaporation times for water and also alcohol room so different. Note that it takes about 20 hrs for a autumn of water to evaporate (I didn’t have sufficient memory in mine camera to movie this come completion).

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That’s a general scheme for evaporation of any kind of liquid. Let’s now look at just how water and alcohol behaved differently.

Time because that a water ~ above a penny to evaporateTime for alcohol on a penny to evaporate
23 HOURS24 minutes
However long you it was observed for, you have to have noted that the takes much longer for water come evaporate 보다 alcohol. In various other words, the amount of water the evaporated was much less than the lot of alcohol the evaporated. Why? due to the fact that of hydrogen bonding. The water molecules, prefer the alcohol molecules, are vibrating and moving. But hydrogen bonds keep the water molecule from jumping far from the surface of the drop, so the the drop of water evaporates very slowly.Because alcohol is greatly a non-polar molecule, with simply a little of polarity, there’s very little attraction in between one alcohol molecule and the next. Consequently, as soon as alcohol molecule accelerate come a high sufficient speed to jump away from the surface ar of the liquid, they take off. There room no hydrogen bonds holding them back. As molecule after molecule the alcohol jumps away from the liquid, the volume of the liquid decreases…until all of it has evaporated.
The specific property the we’re comparing here is referred to as heat of vaporization: it’s the amount warm that’s required to make a liquid right into a gas. Water’s warm of vaporization is much greater than the of alcohol; the key point, in fact, is that water, since of hydrogen bonding, has a very high heat of vaporization.


 Let’s begin by predicting the method that a solitary drop the water and also a single drop of alcohol will feel as soon as you location a couple of drops the each fluid on your skin. Do the following

In her notes, make a prediction around how each liquid will feel when placed on your skin. Below your prediction, define why girlfriend think the 2 will be different. If you have the materials, place the same variety of drops that alcohol and also water ~ above different locations of her skin (for example, different parts the the ago of her hand). If friend can, work with a partner, have your partner location the autumn on her hand while her eyes room closed. There is no looking, can you call which drop was which? Afterwards, click on “show the answer” to view if your results correspond with what I’ve composed below.If friend don’t have the materials, just click on “show the answer” to check out the results and also to verify her prediction.

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How water feels on her skinHow alcohol feeling on your skin
Not together cool as the alcoholCooler 보다 the autumn of water
As you might be expecting, the factor for the difference is hydrogen bonding, and also water’s much higher heat of vaporization the alcohol. Due to the fact that of hydrogen bonds, the water molecules aren’t evaporating. That method that as your body heat warms increase the water molecules, they’re warming up, too. The alcohol molecules, by contrast, aren’t connected by hydrogen bonds. Together they absorb heat from your skin, they begin to relocate faster and also faster. Together they begin to evaporate, they carry their heat energy away from your skin. Friend perceive the loss of heat power as coolness.


 Let’s start by predicting the how easily salt will dissolve in water and alcohol.

In her notes, do a prediction about whether or not salt will certainly dissolve in water, and whether or no salt will dissolve in an equal amount of alcohol. If you have actually the materials, use 2 cups.place a little amount of water (100 mL) in a cup, and an equal amount the alcohol in a second cup.Use one teaspoon to put about 1/2 a teaspoon of salt in the water cup. Stir. Record what happens.Using a second teaspoon, put around 1/2 a teaspoon of salt into the alcohol cup. Stir. Record what happens.If you don’t have the materials, just click “show the answer” to see the results and to verify her prediction.

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Salt disappear in waterSalt does not dissolve in alcohol

Salt will certainly NOT dissolve in alcohol

Image arisen by Professor Angelos Michaelides, university College, London. Permission PendingTable salt is salt chloride (NaCl). Sodium chloride is an ionic compound, held together by ionic bonds between positively charged salt ions and also negatively charged chlorine ions.When water and also salt are mixed together, water’s polarity provides dissolving the salt easy. The positively charged side of water pulls the chlorine ions away indigenous the salt crystal. The negatively charged next of water traction the sodium ions away from the salt crystal.You have the right to see this in the image over The green spheres are chlorine; the blue spheres space sodium.

In much less polar alcohol, the alcohol molecules have actually no method to “grab” onto the salt or chlorine ions, which stay linked through ionic bonds, and don’t dissolve.


 Here’s a final challenge. See if you can float a record clip top top the surface ar of a cup that water. Then view if you have the right to do the exact same with alcohol. Here’s the procedure. If you don’t have actually the materials, review the procedure anyway, and shot to suspect what will occur in every case.

Fill a cup with water. To make this easy, usage a little cup (but one that’s large enough because that a record clip to float top top the surface.Use a small record clip. It’s most basic if you bend up a short metal take care of from the file clip for this reason you can place the clip on the water together gently as possible. Bend it prefer thisGently location the record clip on the surface ar of the water, then let go.Repeat exactly the exact same step, except with alcohol in a cup (instead the water)If you don’t have the materials, just click “show the answer” to check out the results and to verify her prediction.

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Paper clip: floating ~ above waterPaper clip: sunk in alcohol

Science is all around repeatable, verifiable results. I can’t definitively say that a paper clip will certainly never rise on alcohol. Yet I’ve had actually hundreds of students shot this over the years, and I’ve never seen one succeed. Here’s what’s happening.So numerous things space wrong v this picture (scale is just one), but I’m trying to convey the idea that a “net” the water molecules, associated by hydrogen bonds.

Because water molecules room polar, they affix through hydrogen bonds. They perform this in ~ the surface ar of the human body of water (where it contact the air over it), as well inside the body of water. So shot to imagine that file clip floating ~ above a internet of water molecules. As lengthy as the clip doesn’t break the web, it deserve to float top top top. The surname for this internet of water molecules on the surface ar of a human body of water is surface tension.

Not that this is not why wood, or plane carriers, float on water. Those objects space floating due to the fact that their overall density is less than that of water (mostly due to the fact that of trapped empty room and air within the lumber or the boat). The paper clip, through contrast, is lot denser 보다 the water. The floating that you watch in the file clip is resulted in by surface ar tension, not through density.

Alcohol is much less polar 보다 water. Because it’s non-polar, the molecules don’t kind hydrogen bonds. Since they don’t form hydrogen bonds, the clips sink with the surface. Essentially, in the alcohol solution, there’s no surface stress (or, in ~ least, not virtually enough to assistance a record clip).


4. Summary: Five properties that water that you should remember

Everything you it was observed in this lab resulted from water’s polarity. Below are the particular properties the water the you must remember from this lab and also video.

Because of hydrogen bonding, water molecule stick come one another. This is a property well-known as cohesion. We saw this in the shape of a water molecule compared to an alcohol molecule. And we witnessed this in ours demonstration of surface ar tension. As you’ll see later on in this course, cohesion among water molecules explains exactly how 300 foot tall redwood trees deserve to transport water increase the size of your trunk. It’s all about each water molecule tugging on the one behind it, all the way up come the height of the tree.Water is a great solvent the ionic and polar substances.Water has a very high heat the vaporization, which means that the takes a lot of power to change water native a fluid to a gas. That’s why it takes water therefore much longer to evaporate than alcohol. Also, when water walk evaporate, it removes a lot of heat from the object the it’s evaporating from. This is why perspiration is together an effective way to cool us down. As that water on our skin evaporates, the all at once temperature the our bodies is decreased.Water has actually a fairly high freezing point. That’s since when water molecules get cool enough, they’ll grab onto one an additional through hydrogen bonding. Liquids such together alcohol, i m sorry don’t kind hydrogen bonds, have to be cooled much much more before they’ll type inter-molecular bonds and also become solid.

 5. Checking Understanding: properties of Water


Properties the Water Quiz

This quiz is a mix of the game “hangman” and a flashcard deck. V each question, you’ll kind in the answer. If you obtain the question wrong, the goes ago in the deck for you to repeat it.

Water is

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Water creates _________ bonds

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The ______ next of water has a partial positive charge

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The hydrogen side of water has actually a partial ________ charge

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The _______ next of water has a partial negative charge

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The oxygen side of water has actually a partial ______ charge

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Because that _______ bonding, water molecule have a the majority of cohesion.

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Because of hydrogen bonding, water molecules have a the majority of _______.

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Isopropyl alcohol is much less _______ 보다 water is.

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Because it has less hydrogen bonding, a drop that alcohol will have a much _______ form than a fall of water.

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Because it has actually less _________ bonding, a drop of alcohol will have actually a lot flatter shape than a drop of water.

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The amount of heat required to do a liquid right into a gas is its warmth of ___________.

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The quantity of _____ compelled to make a liquid right into a gas is its warm of vaporization.

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The amount of heat required to do a liquid into a ___ is its warmth of vaporization.

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Alcohol has a lot lower heat the _________ than water.

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Alcohol has a much ______ warmth of vaporization than water.

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Because of _______ bonding, water molecules have actually a very high warmth of vaporization.

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Because the hydrogen bonding, water molecules have a an extremely high heat of _______.

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Because the hydrogen bonding, water molecules have actually a really high warm of ___________.

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Because water is polar, it’s good at dissolve ________ substances like salt.

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Because water is ______, it’s good at dissolving ionic substances prefer salt.

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Because water is polar, it’s an excellent at dissolve ionic substances, and also just around any _______ substance.

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Because the hydrogen bonding, water has actually a most surface ________, permitting a paper clip come float top top the surface of a human body of water.

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Because of ________ bonding, water has a most surface tension, enabling a paper clip to float top top the surface ar of a body of water.

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Because the hydrogen bonding, water has a most surface tension, permitting a paper clip come ______ ~ above the surface of a body of water.

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In order because that water to evaporate, _________ bonds need to be broken.

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In order for water to evaporate, hydrogen bonds must be ________.

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In order for water come _________, hydrogen bonds need to be broken.

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Because that hydrogen bonding, water freezes in ~ a fairly _____ temperature.

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Because the ________ bonding, water freezes at a fairly high temperature.

See more: Why Did Venetian Artists Begin Using Oil Instead Of Tempera Paint Ing

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Because that hydrogen bonding, ice is less ______ than liquid water.

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