The contents that complies with is the problem of great 8. In this lecture us cover the Mole and Avagadro"s Number and also the calculations because that Molar Mass and also conversions making use of moles.

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The MOLE (mol) is a unit of measurement the is the quantity of a pure substance containing the same number of ubraintv-jp.comical devices (atoms, molecule etc.) as there space atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 (i.e., 6.022 X 1023).

So the mole is the title offered for the quantity 6.022 x 1023 much the same method the indigenous "dozen" is supplied for the lot 12.

So if you had a mole the donuts friend would have 6.022 x 1023 donuts and a major stomach ache.

We usage the mole (mol) to represent the lot of substances in ubraintv-jp.comistry because the number of atoms and also molecules in every substance is so large. The value given 6.022 x 1023 is called Avagadro"s number because that the scientist that found the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon 12. Why usage 12 grams? This is the theoretical atomic mass of the Carbon-12 isotope (6 protons and 6 neutrons). This method that the atomic mass or atomic load (12 grams) that carbon is same to precisely 1 mole that carbon.

Using carbon as a reference, the atomic weights you check out in the routine table are additionally equal to one mole that those substances: Lithium because that instance has an atomic mass that 6.941 grams and this is same to one mole the lithium. This is why we state the atomic and molecular masses in devices of grams every mole or g/mol.

What have the right to we execute with moles? We usage the unit to do calculations based on balanced ubraintv-jp.comical equations. We usage the stoichiometry (fancy means of saying mole ratios in one equation) to make predictions around how much product will certainly be do or reactant needed if we recognize one mole lot in a reaction.

### Moles that a Substance and also the molecule Weight

The Molar massive or Molecular weight (interchangeable state so lengthy as we space on Earth) of a substance is the complete of every the individual masses that the aspects it contains. To use our old girlfriend water together an example:

One mole the Water is written of 1 mole the Oxygen and also two moles of Hydrogen. The mass of oxygen equal to one mole of oxygen is 15.998 grams and the fixed of one mole the hydrogen is 1.008 g. If we full up the gram amounts of each facet in the water molecule = 15.998g/mol + 2(1.008g/mol) we gain the molar fixed of water = 18.014g/mol.

So if we had specifically 18.014g that water us would have 1 mole the water.

### Mole Relationships

The reason the mole is so important is because we usage the mole as the unit for most of the relationships in ubraintv-jp.comistry. Reaction are balanced based ~ above the variety of moles that each aspect in the reaction, systems concentrations are an extremely often explained in regards to moles per liter or moles per kg that solvent and we have already seen that the molecule or atoms of an element are reported together moles the the substance quite than the individual counting of their particles.

Let"s begin the relationship discussion with the relationship in between the mole and also the AMU.

An AMU is 1/12 the mass of a Carbon-12 atom which according to the routine table weighs ~12g. This way that 1 AMU ≈ 1g right? and also thus Carbon has actually a fixed of 12amu, correct? yet wait, this could not be the massive of a solitary carbon atom right? They space really, really tiny. And also that is correct, the mass presented in the routine table is actually the mass of 6.022 x 1023 carbon atoms or a mole of carbon atoms. So in reality, 1 AMU = 1.66 x 10-24g and while a carbon atom weighs 12 AMU, the mass presented in the periodic table is

### 12 atoms x 1.66 x 10-24g x 6.022 x 1023 atoms/ mol= 12 g/mol

So a solitary carbon atom weighs 12 amu when a mole the carbon atom weighs 12.01g/mol.

## Mole Calculations

There are plethora of calculations that can be carried out using the unit of moles as the intermediate. I am walking to review a couple of of them now and then you will view as we development through later on topics the moles are essential to those calculations together well.

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Typical mole calculations:

1) Calculation of the Molecular weight or Molar mass of a compound

The molar mass of a compound likewise often dubbed the molecular weight while ~ above Earth, is merely the amount of all the individual element masses in the compound. You usage the periodic table as a recommendation for these masses and also total lock up:

For example, if we desire to full the molar fixed of Aluminum Sulfate Al2(SO4)3 , we need to determine the number and also mass that each aspect in the compound. Because that Aluminum Sulfate the totals room 2 Al, 3 S and also 12 O. So here is the math making use of the atomic masses given in the regular table:

### 2(26.98 g/mol) + 3( 32.07 g/mol) + 12(16.00 g/mol) = 342.17 g/mol

2) Conversion indigenous Grams to moles or moles to Grams

Once you recognize the molar mass of a compound, you have the right to use the mass to identify the quantity of moles in a gram lot of the problem or conversely, you have the right to calculate the variety of grams in a mole quantity of the substance.

Here room some examples:

How numerous moles are in 55.4g the Aluminum Sulfate?

The calculation is set up favor a conversion through the molar mass of Aluminum Sulfate together the conversion factor:

### 55.4g Al2(SO4)3 x 1 mol Al2(SO4)3/342.17 g Al2(SO4)3 = 0.162 mol Al2(SO4)3

Or, How countless grams of Al2(SO4)3 room in 6.34 mole of Al2(SO4)3?

### 6.34 mol Al2(SO4)3 x 342.17g Al2(SO4)3/ 1 mol Al2(SO4)3 = 2.17 x 103 Al2(SO4)3

3) Conversion to molecules or Atoms

In addition to being a unit for molar mass, the mole is likewise the gateway in between the massive of a substance and its atoms or molecules.

For Example, if request how plenty of molecules of Al2(SO4)3 space in th 55.4 g that Al2(SO4)3 above we just need to first calculate the number of moles as before and then usage Avagadro"s number to convert the moles to molecules:

### 9.76 x 1022 Molecules Al2(SO4)3

Furthermore if we ongoing the problem and asked how plenty of Aluminum atoms were in the 55.4 g that Al2(SO4)3?

Well the is a simple continuation. We simply need to main point by the number of atoms of Aluminum in the compound:

### 9.76 x 1022 Molecules Al2(SO4)3 x 2 atom Al/ 1 molecule Al2(SO4)3 = 1.95 x 1023 Al atoms

Let"s practice some more: