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Colour: Body fur black, brown, blonde, or rarely white. Brown muzzle. White chest patch on some not all, always unique. Eye brown (blue in ~ birth). Skin light coloured.

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Adult Weight:Males: up to 500 pounds common, relying on age, season, and also food. Record: 816 pounds; Minnesota, over 800 pounds tape-recorded in Manitoba;Females: 90 come 300 pounds common. Record: 454 pounds; Pennsylvania. Mike McIntosh of Bear with Us relocated a 360 lb female in the loss of 1998 in central Ontario. Captive bears may exceed these records.

Adult Length: 50 to 80 inches, sleep to tail, depending on sex.

Litter Size: commonly 2 in the West, 3 in the East. First litters frequently 1 or 2. Record: 6, Pennsylvania.

Mating Season: Late may to July. Occasionally longer.

Birth Month: January.

Birth Weight: 1/2 pound.

Weight in ~ 1 Year: 15 pounds to much more than 100 pounds, depending upon food supply.

Parental Care: 17 months (rarely 29 months), finishing in June/July once mothers become ready to mate again.

Age at manufacturing of very first Cubs: 4 come 9 years(Ontario), depending upon food supply.

Interval in between Litters: 2 come 4 years, most frequently 2 years, depending upon food supply.

Sex Ratio: nearly even in ~ birth, generally with a bias toward males.

Vision: shade vision. Good near vision. Untested distance vision, vision shows up to same humans.

Hearing: Exceeds person frequency ranges and also sensitivity.

Smelling: One hundred times an ext nasal mucosa 보다 a human. Smelling ability is extremely good. The limits of this sense have not to be tested.

Intelligence: among the many intelligent mammals. Deserve to generalize to the straightforward concept level. Irreversible memory excellent. Most difficult brain, family member to body length, of any kind of land carnivore.

Sounds: Grunts, loud blowing, and also a resonant “voice”. Does no threaten through growling.

Swimming Distance: great long street swimmer. Might swim come island campsites.

Running Speed: skinny bears may exceed 30 mph. Deserve to run uphill or downhill. Fat bear in winter readiness tire and also overheat quickly.

Daily task Period: typically 1/2 hour prior to sunrise to 1 come 2 hours after sunset. Choose to be energetic during daylight hours, yet may end up being nocturnal to prevent people.

Home selection Diameter:Yearlings: 1-2 miles.Adult females: 2-6 miles. Adult males: 8-15 miles.Preferred Foods: Fruit, nuts, acorns, insects, succulent greens, and meat. Less preferred foods may cause weight loss.Hibernation: 0 come 7 months relying on food supply.

Potential Longevity: 21-33 years and also more. Earliest wild bear recorded shot at age 41 years, new York State – 1974

Causes the Death: bears 2 year old or older external national parks: 95 percent gunshot; 5 percent herbal causes, road-kill, and also other human-related causes. Average age of fatality from human-related causes: 6 year (northeastern Minnesota). Cubs and yearlings; starvation, predation, falls from trees, road-kills, etc. Few bears die of disease.

Range: substantial forests with low human being populations native Florida and also Mexico to Alaska and also Labrador, prolonging onto open up tundra where grizzly bears have been extirpated in northern Labrador.

Optimum Habitat: extensive forests v a variety of fruit- and nut-producing species. Tiny openings encourage fruiting of countless shrub species. Lowlands and also wetlands are important sources the succulent vegetation. Streams and also pools are required for drinking and cooling. Trees bigger than 20 inches d.b.h. V strong, furrowed bark are conveniently climbed refuges for feather cubs.

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Long-Term Problem: Human population expansion is reducing bear habitat. Human tolerance of black color bars is low because of unrealistically ferocious famous image of black color bears.

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Credits: University of Minnesota, Dr. Lynn Rogers because that text. Catalog at height of page and photos – Mike and Ella McIntosh