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Adult Weight:Males: approximately 500 pounds common, depending on age, season, and also food. Record: 816 pounds; Minnesota, over 800 pounds tape-recorded in Manitoba;Females: 90 to 300 pounds widespread. Record: 454 pounds; Pennsylvania. Mike McIntosh of Bear With Us resituated a 360 pound female in the fall of 1998 in Central Ontario. Captive bears may exceed these records.
Adult Length: 50 to 80 inches, nose to tail, relying on sex.
Litter Size: Usually 2 in the West, 3 in the East. First litters regularly 1 or 2. Record: 6, Pennsylvania.
Mating Season: Late May to July. Occasionally longer.
Birth Month: January.
Birth Weight: 1/2 pound.
Weight at 1 Year: 15 pounds to more than 100 pounds, depending on food supply.
Parental Care: 17 months (rarely 29 months), ending in June/July once mothers end up being all set to mate again.
Era at Production of First Cubs: 4 to 9 years(Ontario), depending upon food supply.
Interval Between Litters: 2 to 4 years, the majority of regularly 2 years, depending on food supply.
Sex Ratio: Nat an early stage even at birth, mainly through a predisposition toward males.
Vision: Color vision. Good close to vision. Untested distance vision, vision appears to equal people.
Hearing: Exceeds humale frequency varieties and sensitivity.
Smelling: One hundred times even more nasal mucosa than a humale. Smelling capability is very great. The limits of this feeling have not been tested.
Intelligence: One of the most intelligent mammals. Can generalize to the easy principle level. Long-term memory great. Heaviest brain, relative to body size, of any kind of land carnivore.
Sounds: Grunts, loud blowing, and also a resonant “voice”. Does not thrconsumed by growling.
Swimming Distance: terrific lengthy distance swimmer. May swim to island also campsites.
Running Speed: Lean bears may exceed 30 mph. Can run uphill or downhill. Fat bears in winter readiness tire and overwarm quickly.
Daily Activity Period: Typically 1/2 hour prior to sunclimb to 1 to 2 hrs after suncollection. Pdescribe be energetic throughout daylight hrs, yet might end up being nocturnal to prevent civilization.
Home Range Diameter:Yearlings: 1-2 miles.Adult females: 2-6 miles. Adult males: 8-15 miles.Preferred Foods: Fruit, nuts, acorns, insects, succulent greens, and meat. Less wanted foods might cause weight loss.Hibernation: 0 to 7 months depending upon food supply.
Potential Longevity: 21-33 years and also more. Oldest wild bear taped swarm at age 41 years, New York State – 1974
Causes of Death: Bears 2 years old or older outside nationwide parks: 95 percent gunshot; 5 percent herbal causes, road-kill, and also other human-related causes. Average age of death from human-connected causes: 6 years (northeastern Minnesota). Cubs and also yearlings; starvation, predation, falls from trees, road-kills, and so on. Couple of bears die of condition.
Range: Extensive woodlands via low humale populations from Florida and Mexico to Alaska and Labrador, extfinishing onto open up tundra where grizzly bears have been extirpated in northern Labrador.
Optimum Habitat: Extensive forests with a variety of fruit- and nut-creating species. Small openings promote fruiting of many kind of shrub species. Lowlands and also wetlands are crucial sources of succulent vegetation. Streams and pools are essential for drinking and cooling. trees bigger than 20 inches d.b.h. via solid, furrowed bark are quickly climbed refuges for spring cubs.
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Long-Term Problem: Human being population expansion is reducing bear habitat. Human tolerance of babsence bars is low as a result of unrealistically ferocious famous photo of babsence bears.
Credits: College of Minnesota, Dr. Lynn Rogers for text. Brochure at top of web page and also photos – Mike and also Ella McIntosh