Octagon is a polygon in geometry, which has 8 sides and 8 angles. That means the number of vertices is 8 and the number of edges is 8. In simple words, octagon is a 8-sided polygon and it is a two dimensional plane figure. All the sides are joined with each other end-to-end to form a shape. These sides are in a straight line form; they are not curved or disjoint with each other. Each interior angle of a regular octagon is 135°. Therefore, the measure of exterior angle becomes 180° – 135° = 45°. The sum of the interior angles of the octagon is 135 × 8 = 1080°. In this article, let us discuss the octagon shape, its formulas, properties, and examples in detail.
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Shape of Octagon
Octagon is a geometrical shape in a two-dimensional plane. Like the other polygon shapes, which we have studied in geometry, such as triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon, rectangle, etc., the octagon is also a polygon. The points which define it different from other geometrical shapes is that it has 8 sides and 8 angles.
If squares are built internally or externally on all the sides of an octagon, then the midpoints of the sections joining the centres of opposite squares form a quadrilateral: equi-diagonal and orthodiagonal ( whose diagonals length are equal and they bisect each other at 90 degrees).
You can see in the above figure, there are 8 sides of the polygon and eight vertices as well. This is a regular octagon because all the angles and sides here are equal. In the same way, based on sides and angles, there are many types of polygons, such as:TriangleQuadrilateralPentagonHexagonheptagonNonagonDecagon, and so on.
Octagon Shape Images
We might have observed that different objects that we use in our everyday life contain an octagonal shape. Some of the examples include the following:Outline of an umbrella with 8 ribsStop sign board at the signalsA wall clock with 8 edges
In the previous section, you learned about the shape of an octagon with the help of an image. Let’s understand octagon sides and how to represent them.
How many sides does an octagon have?
As we already know, octagon os a 8-sided polygon. That means, an octagon contains 8 sides. Also, based on the length of these sides, octagons are classified as regular and irregular octagons.
As defined above, the octagonal shape contains 8 angles at 8 vertices. Thus, the octagon holds 8 sides and 8 angles. There are 8 interior angles and 8 exterior angles in an octagon. Octagon interior angles sum is equal to 1080 degrees. Also, the sum of all the eight exterior angles is equal to 360 degrees. Based on the type of angles, octagons are classified as convex and concave octagons.
Types of Octagon
Depending upon the sides and angles of the octagon, it is classified into the following categories;Regular and Irregular OctagonConcave and Convex Octagon
Regular and Irregular Octagon
When an octagon has all equal sides and equal angles, then it is defined as a regular octagon. But if it has unequal sides and unequal angles, it is defined as an irregular octagon. See the figure below to see the difference between them.
A regular octagon is a closed shape with sides of equal length and interior angles of the same measurement. It has eight symmetric lines and rotational equilibrium of order 8. The interior angle at each vertex of a regular octagon is 135°. The central angle is 45°.
In the above figure, the left-hand side figure depicts a regular octagon and the two figures on the right side shows irregular octagons. From the figure itself, we can analyse that there is a difference between the symmetry of regular and irregular polygons.
Convex and Concave Octagon
The octagon which has all its angles pointing outside or no angles pointing inwards, is a convex octagon. The angles of the convex octagon are not more than 180°. And the octagon, with one of its angles pointing inward, is a concave-shaped octagon.
In the above figure, you can see, the convex octagon has all its angles pointing outside from the center or origin point. Whereas on the right side, the concave octagon has one of the angles pointing
towards the inside of the polygon.
For any n-sided polygon, we can find the number of diagonals using the formula n(n – 3)/2.
Similarly, we can find the number of diagonals in an octagon.
For octagon, n = 8
Substituting n – 8 in the required formula, we get;
n(n – 3)/2 = 8(8 – 3)/2 = 4(5) = 20
Therefore, an octagon contains a total of 20 diagonals. These can be drawn as shown in the below figure.
Length of the Diagonal of Octagon
If we join the opposite vertices of a regular octagon, then the diagonals formed have the length equal to:
L = a√(4 + 2√2)
where a is the side of the octagon.
Perimeter of Octagon
The perimeter of the octagon is the length of the sides or boundaries of the octagon, which forms a closed shape.
Perimeter = Sum of all Sides = 8a
Where a is the length of one side of the octagon.
Area of Regular Octagon
Area of the octagon is the region covered by the sides of the octagon. The formula for the area of a regular octagon which has 8 equal sides and all its interior angles are equal to 135°, is given by:
Area = 2a2(1 + √2)This is the octagon area formula incase of equal sides.
Properties of Octagon
In the case of properties, we usually consider regular octagons.These have eight sides and eight angles.All the sides and all the angles are equal, respectively.There are a total of 20 diagonals in a regular octagon.The total sum of the interior angles is 1080°, where each angle is equal to 135°(135×8 = 1080)Sum of all the exterior angles of the octagon is 360°, and each angle is 45°(45×8=360).
Octagon Lines of symmetry
We know that the line of symmetry of a shape divides it into identical halves. Thus, being an 8 sided polygon, it has 8 lines of symmetry. However, these lines of symmetry can be drawn for regular octagons and this can be shown as:
A prism may contain at most octagonal faces and this is known as an octagonal prism. The shape of an octagonal prism is given as:
If the base of a pyramid is an octagon, then we call it an octagonal pyramid. The shape of an octagonal pyramid is given in the figure below.
Q.1: If the length of the side of a regular octagon is 5 cm. Find its perimeter and area.
Given, a = 5 cm
Therefore, Perimeter = 8a = 8 × 5 = 40 cm
And Area = 2a2(1+√2) = 2 × 52 (1+√2) = 2 × 25 (1+√2)= 120.7 cm2
Q.2: If the side length of a regular octagon is 7 cm. Find its area.
Given, length of the side of the octagon, a = 7 cm
Area = 2a2(1+√2) = 2 (7)2(1+√2) = 236.6 sq.cm.
Q.3: Find the length of the longest diagonal of a regular octagon whose side length is equal to 10 cm.
Length of side of octagon = a = 10 cm
By the formula, we know, the length of the longest diagonal formula is given by:
L = a√(4 + 2√2)
L = 10√(4 + 2√2)
L = 10 x √6.828
L= 10 x 2.613
L = 26.13 cm
Q.4: Find the area and perimeter of a regular octagon whose side is of length 2.5 cm.
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Length of side of octagon = a = 2.5 cm
Area of octagon = 2a2(1+√2)
A = 2 x (2.5)2 (1+√2)
A = 12.5 x (1+√2)
A = 30.177 sq.cm
Perimeter of Octagon = 8 x sides of the octagon
P = 8 x 2.5
P = 20cm
In geometry, an octagon is a polygon that has 8 sides and 8 angles. All the sides are joined end to end to form the shape of the octagon. The sum of the interior angles of an octagon is equal to 1080 degrees.