The Umbrella Cockatoo or White Cockatoo, Cacatua alba, is endemic to the islands of main and northern Moluccas (aka Maluku Islands) in Indonesia. Specifics they take place naturally on the archipelago of Bacan, Halmahera,, Tidore, Kasiruta, Ternate, Kasiruta and also Mandioli.

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They are also found on the island the Obi and the surrounding island of Bisa, however it is thought that they were introduced to these islands and are escaped pets. (BirdLife International, 2001; Juniper and also Parr, 1998)

Within their natural range, castle are found at elevations the 1,000 to 3,000 ft (300 to 900 m) in a selection of habitats, including forests and open woodland, mangroves, swamps and agricultural areas (where castle are thought about "pests" due to the fact that they feeding on the crop). Lock are specifically common along the edges of clearings and also rivers.

Umbrella Cockatoos, prefer all the other varieties of cockatoos, are necessary for the dispersal of seeds -- which has actually important aftermath for the ecology and evolution that plants.

Although the umbrella cockatoo is no classified together an endangered types it is classified as vulnerable. It number in the wild have decreased owing to habitat loss, hunting and also illegal trapping for the cage-bird trade. The is provided in appendix 2 the the CITES list of defended species. This offers it protection by making the profession of wild recorded birds illegal.


Average Lifespan

Umbrella Cockatoos deserve to live over 40 years in captivity and 30 year in the wild. There room some insurance claims that several of them have actually lived come the ripe of period of 100, however this has not to be verified.



Umbrella Cockatoos room medium-sized cockatoos the weigh between 17 oz (480 g) approximately 25 oz (700 g) - the mean being 20 oz (565 g).

They average 18 customs or 46 centimeter in length. Their wings measure in between 9.84 - 12.2 inch or 25 to 31 cm. (Arndt and Pittman, 2003; Juniper and also Parr, 1998)

Umbrella Cockatoos are big white parrots through brown / red or black color eyes, dark grey beaks and legs.

The Umbrella Cockatoos was called for the broad, backward-bending crest, which open up like one umbrella and fan out. The Umbrella Cockatoos and the Moluccan Cockatoos have the largest and also fullest crests.

When the comb is lowered, the feathers fold back over the head and the crest is fixed visible.

As attractive as the cockatoo crests are, their major purpose is communication.

A elevated crest have the right to indicate the a cockatoo is displaying for its mate; defending its territory or the flock, call its flock members; or a cockatoo might be to express curiosity, excitement, surprise, fear or frustration. For those draw close a cockatoo -a increased crest might be a warning no to touch castle - or else danger being bitten.A lowered crest can indicate calmness, friendliness and also general approachability.

There room some pale yellow / lemon colored feathers on the underside of the wings and also tail, i beg your pardon flash when they fly.

Gender identification:

Both males and females have actually pale blue eye-rings, but males have actually dark brown eyes, if females have actually reddish eyes. The female also tends to have a smaller sized head and also beak than male.



Breeding Season

Umbrella Cockatoos only breed when a year - usually in between December and March, as soon as vegetation expansion is in ~ its peak and food is easily available.

Courtship and Mating

As part of the courtship behavior, the male ruffles his feathers, spreads his tail feathers, extend his wings, and erects his crest. He climate bounces about. Initially, the mrs ignores or avoids him, however - provided he meets her approval - will certainly eventually permit him to technique her.

If his initiatives are successful and he is accepted, the pair will be watched preening each other"s head and scratching each other about the tail. These actions serve to strengthen your pair bond. Eventually, the masculine mounts the female and also performs the actual plot of adjustment by involvement of the cloacae. Because that bonded pairs, this mating routine is much shorter and the female might even strategy the male. As soon as they are prepared for nesting, reproduction pairs different from their groups and also search because that a an ideal nest cavity (usually in trees).

Cockatoos kind a near bond the lasts because that a lifetime. If they are separated, they may slip into a deep depression. In lack of a "true" mate, they may accept a caretaker together its mate.


Nesting and Raising that the Young


Diet / Feeding

In their organic habitat, umbrella cockatoos frequently feed on various seeds, nuts and also fruits, such together papaya, durian, langsat and also rambutan. As they are additionally feed on corn farming in fields, castle do considerable damage and also are, therefore, considered crop pests through farmers. (BirdLife International, 2001)

They likewise eat large insects, such together crickets (order Orthoptera) and also skinks.

Captive birds space usually detailed a parrot mix containing assorted seeds, nuts and dried fruits and also vegetables. Additionally, they should be readily available lots of new vegetables, fruits and also branches (with leaves) for chewing and entertainment.



Umbrella Cockatoos together Pet Birds:

Umbrellas are an extremely social, needing a lot of interaction. They can be really loud and also their call (a really loud screeching noise) can be heard increase to three miles away.

If noise and also attention levels are not that concern, hand-reared umbrella cockatoos can make good pets, together they room sociable, intelligent and they deserve to learn tricks and also be trained. They have the right to imitate human being speech, yet generally they are not great talkers. However, lock can ruin furniture through their an effective beaks, they can make a the majority of loud noise and also they need a many care and also attention. Their droppings are quite big and semisolid and also can be messy. Umbrella cockatoos together pets require so much care and attention, and also can it is in so destructive and expensive come keep, that part pet bird are regularly passed native one owner to the next. Also hand reared cockatoos yet are not really domesticated, and also even the sweet cockatoo can seriously bite and also injure a human without provocation.

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Umbrella Cockatoos equire the biggest cage obtainable at the very least 3" x 3" x5" and also need to be out of their cage as lot as possible. They room not basic pet come keep and require a the majority of time, devotion and understanding from their caregivers.


Training and Behavioral Guidance



Genus: Scientific: Cacatua ... English: White Black-billed Cockatoos ... Dutch: Wit and Zwartsnavelkakatoes ... German: Eigentliche Kakadus ... French: Cacatoès

Species: Scientific: Cacatua alba aka Psittacus albus ... English: White Cockatoos, great White Cockatoos ...Dutch: Witte Kakatoe, Witkuif Kakatoe ... German: Weißhaubenkakadu ... French: Cacatoès blanc

CITES II - intimidated Species

Other advantageous Resources

Species research study by Sibylle Johnson