Key Ideas:

Law the Falling bodies (Galileo) all falling bodies suffer the same gravitational accelerationLaw of global Gravitation (Newton) heaviness is an attractive force between all bag of substantial objects Gravitational pressure is proportional to the masses, and inversely proportional come the square the the distance between them.NOTE: This and also the following lecture are most likely the many mathematical that allthe lectures that will certainly be provided in this class. Ns encourage you every toread this notes in advancement and shot to follow the debates in them. Inwill do it easier to follow along throughout lecture.

The law of fallout’s Bodies

Prior to his telescopic work, Galileo perform fundamentalresearch top top motion.Explored the price of falling body by dropping differentweights, or slide them under inclined planes.Law of fall BodiesIn the absence of air, heavy objects and also light objects autumn at the same, consistent rate of acceleration.

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Universal mutual Gravitation

Isaac Newton, in his Principia, formulated the legislation ofUniversal mutual Gravitation:Gravity is one Attractive
force:It draws enormous objects closer togetherGravity is a Universal force:It operates all over in the Universe.Gravity is a Mutual force:It works between pairs of substantial objects.

Gravitational Force

The pressure of gravity between any kind of two objects depends only upon:The masses of the 2 objects:More enormous objects exert a stronger the gravitational force.The distance between them:The force gets stronger as the 2 objects relocate closer together.The pressure gets weaker as the 2 objects relocate farther apart.It does not depend on the shapes, colors, or compositions the theobjects.

The law of universal Gravitation

The force of gravitational attraction between any type of two massive bodies is proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance in between their centers.The force of heaviness is an instance of an train station Square regulation ForceStated mathematically, the pressure of gravity in between two massivebodies is:
Where:F = force because of gravity.M1 = mass of the very first bodyM2 = massive of the second bodyd = distance between their centers.G = Gravitational pressure Constant

The Gravitational pressure Constant

The pressure constant, G, is a number which offers the size of thegravitational coupling in between two huge objects.G is very small, in metric units:G=6.7x10-11 Newtons meter2 / kilogram2The Newton is the metric unit the force:4.41 Newtons = 1 poundG has to be measure up experimentally18.1.

The fall of one Apple.

Stand top top the Earth and also drop an apple.What is the pressure of the earth on the apple?F = GMearth Mapple/Rearth2What is the apple"s acceleration (Newton"s second Law the Motion):aapple = F/Mapple = GMearth/Rearth2 = 9.8 meters/sec2Note the the fixed of the apologize (Mapple) had divided out ofthe equation. This method that the acceleration because of gravity isindependent of the fixed of the apple, just like Galileo had shownearlier.

Equal and also Opposite Reactions

But, Newton"s 3rd Law of activity states the all forces come in equal however opposite pairsWhat force does the the apple use in return ~ above the Earth?F = GMearth Mapple/Rearth2How lot does the planet accelerate in the direction of the apple?aearth = F/Mearth = GMapple/Rearth2This have the right to be rewritten to offer the acceleration of the earth in termsof the acceleration that the apple towards the earth asaearth = aapple x (Mapple/Mearth)where aapple=9.8 meters/sec2, and the ratio of the fixed of the apple come the fixed of the earth is very tiny number.For a usual 200g apple, this functions out come be around 10-25 meters/sec2, a an extremely tiny acceleration.

The fixed of the Earth

We can straight measure the acceleration of gravity at the surface ar ofthe earth by dropping objects and also timing their autumn (e.g., prefer was doneby Galileo). We finda = 9.8 meters/sec2We can additionally measure the radius that the earth using geometry (Eratosthenes):Rearth=6378 kilometers = 6,378,000 metersCombining these together using Newton"s formula because that the GravitationalForce enables us to calculation the mass of the Earth, together follows:
This is an instance of one of the an effective implications of Newton"sLaw of Gravity: It offers us a method to use the motions of objects underthe affect of their shared gravitation to measure up the masses ofplanets, stars, galaxies, etc.

The Orbit the the Moon

Falling apples are one thing, but what around the Moon?What keeps the Moon in orbit approximately the Earth?
The law of Inertia (Newton"sFirst regulation of Motion) predicts:If there to be no gravitational force acting in between the Moon and also the Earth, the Moon would take trip in a straight heat at a constant speed.But, of food the Moon really moves follow me a bent path:It is deflected from a straight-line course by the force that gravity.This reasons the Moon to autumn a tiny bit towards the earth at the sametime in ~ it moves to one side.

The loss of the Moon

How much does the Moon fall about the earth in 1 second?Newton computed this. In order to continue to be in the orbit, the Moon must autumn by 0.00136 meter (about 1.4 mm) every second.Call this quantity xmoon, the deflection that the orbiting Moon in 1 second.How far does one apple autumn on the Earth throughout the very first second?Newton additionally knew this (he might measure that directly), that falls4.9 meters in the first 1 second.Call this quantity xapple, the deflection the afalling apple in the 1 second of motion.Newton also knew that: Moon is about 60 planet Radii native the Earth.Summarizing the numbers:The Moon: distance that the Moon falls towards earth in 1 second: xmoon = 0.00136 meters The distance of the Moon from the facility of the Earth: dmoon = 60 Rearth Acceleration that the Moon: amoon = GMearth/dmoon2 = GMearth / (60Rearth)2The Apple: distance the one Apple drops on earth in 1 second: xapple = 4.9 meters The street of the Apple from the center of the Earth: dapple = 1 Rearth Acceleration the the Apple: aapple = GMearth/dapple2 = GMearth/Rearth2The ratio of the deflections of the Apple and the Moon in 1 second is ratio of your accelerations:Putting all the info we have actually together, we acquire the following:
This predicts that the deflection that the Moon in 1 second necessary tokeep that in orbit approximately the planet should be 1/3600th thedeflection of one apple during the first second that its fall to the Earth.Observations vs. PredictionIs this right?Previously we uncovered from observations that the deflections that theMoon and apple in 1 second are:xmoon = 0.00136 meter xapple = 4.9 metersGravity predicts thatxapple/3600 = 4.9 meters/3600 = 0.00136 meters!!The commitment is basically perfect!This demonstrates that the same legislation of gravity uses to both theapple and also the Moon! Both feel the heaviness of the planet in the kind of aforce the gets weaker together the square the their distance from the centerof the Earth.

So why does the Moon orbit the Earth?

If the Moon is falling a little towards the Earth, as with an appledropped ~ above the surface, why walk the Moon travel around the planet in anorbit instead of falling ~ above it?The means to prize this concern is to an initial consider what wouldhappen if there to be no heaviness acting:Question:How much would the Moon take trip in a straight line in 1 second if there to be no heaviness acting?Answer: About 1000 meters.At the very same time, the Moon"s movement along this straight-line pathwould likewise cause it to move away from the Earth.

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Question: How far away from the planet would the Moon move in 1second if no heaviness were acting?Answer:About 0.00136 meters!In round numbers, the lot the Moon falls towards the planet due togravity is just enough to counter the straight-line path it would take ifgravity were no acting to deflect it. This balance properly closesthe loop.We have therefore reached a frighten conclusion:The Moon is really perpetually fallout’s around the Earth!This is a completely different way of looking in ~ an "orbit" underthe affect of gravity.While at first sight the loss of an apple and the orbit that the Moonappear to be two totally different phenomena, regarded in light ofNewton"s regulations of motion, they are in fact various manifestations ofthe exact same thing! The autumn of the Moon about the earth is the exact same kindof activity as the loss of one apple come the Earth. Both are explained bythe same three legislations of motion, and both feel a gravitational forcedescribed by the same, universal force law.

Universal Gravitation