Are significant changes come U.S. Foreign policy required to much better advance the financial interests of America’s middle class?

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Table the Contents

It is widely known that foreign and domestic problems are currently powerfully joined. Yet we require to fully understand how they intersect and also what that way for the world. Earlier this year, the Geoeconomics and Strategy regime at the Carnegie sweetheart for global Peace introduced a series of instance studies to assist policy specialists answer this fundamental question:

Are far-reaching changes come U.S. International policy compelled to far better advance the economic interests the America’s center class?

Leading approximately the U.S. Presidential 2020 election, candidates will certainly be seek direction ~ above how ideal to resolve Americans’ battles amid uncertain residential and worldwide environments. However, before policy experts across the politics spectrum share your views, castle should first test your long-held assumptions around the financial fortunes the America’s center class and how various U.S. International policies may affect them. Neighborhood economies across the country look an extremely different this particular day than they walk in previous decades, and also sticking with timeless approaches, or radically departing indigenous them, can ultimately do an ext harm 보다 good.

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Local economies across the nation look really different today than they walk in previous decades, and also sticking with timeless approaches, or radically departing indigenous them, can ultimately do much more harm 보다 good.

To this end, Carnegie’s case studies space designed come capture additional data and also different perspectives indigenous U.S. States across the nation’s heartland. Together this first study shows, the findings could usefully educate the advance of much more comprehensive strategies. They can also assist those who normally see the human being through the prism that geopolitics and security but wish to pay more attention come economic advancements at home. More broadly, they might be advantageous for explaining the domestic determinants of U.S. International policy to regional officials, service communities, and the basic public, and to international counterparts overseas.

Carnegie has actually assembled a bipartisan task force of previous national defense strategists, foreign policy planners, trade negotiators, and also international economic experts to administer strategic direction to the studies and shape their main findings. The views of these former an elderly officials, who offered in prior Republican and also Democratic administrations, diverge significantly on separation, personal, instance foreign and domestic policies. However they re-superstructure a common desire to take a new look at your assumptions around how the U.S. Role abroad results the fortunes that America’s middle course at home. (See box 1 because that how foreign policy and also the middle class are defined in this report.)


Box 1

Defining international Policy

Foreign policy serves together shorthand in this report because that the spectrum that foreign, defense, development, global economic, trade, and other plans that overview the occupational of American diplomats, soldiers, profession negotiators, aid experts, and also commercial advocates.

Defining the middle Class

Middle class or middle income in this report refers to family members earning an earnings that is two-thirds to double the U.S. Median annual income, readjusted for family members size and local cost of living (lower-income households have incomes less than two-thirds that the median; upper-income households have incomes that are more than twin the median).1 according to this widely recognized definition—employed through the nonpartisan, nonadvocacy Pew research study Center—the 2016 income selection for the middle course in the unified States—and in Ohio for comparison—is together follows:

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These ranges vary when changed for local price of living and household size. They room also an extremely broad and hence simply a beginning point because that discussion; those civilization at the top end of the middle-income bracket most likely experience very different realities 보다 those at the bottom. Furthermore, together Pew acknowledges, earnings is an incomplete gauge. A current poll reveals that Americans’ definition of the middle course is based upon many various other factors, too, including their ability to host a for sure job, save money, take it a vacation, very own a home, and earn a college education (in stimulate of importance).2

Notes

America’s Struggling center Class

U.S. Diplomats and elected officials have long touted the middle class as the backbone the the country and the bright success story the America’s political and economic models. Yet America’s middle course has to be steadily hollowing out over the last several decades (see figure 1).

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While the percent of American households thought about to it is in middle course has quit shrinking in the last several years, and incomes rose for those in the lower-, middle-, and also upper-income households between 2010 and also 2016, the decades-long trend proceeds of those in the upper-income bracket stability accruing raising share that the nation’s income and wealth.1 The median income of three-person family members in the lower-income parentheses in 2016 ($25,624) was much less than in 2000 ($26,923); that was around the exact same for middle-income families in 2016 and also 2000 ($78,442). Only the average incomes of upper-income family members increased native 2000 ($183,680) come 2016 ($187,872).2 In 1983, the upper-income net worth was 3.4 times better than the median net worth of middle-income families, however by 2016, it was 7.4 times greater.3

The distributional fads for middle-class American households may partly explain why world are increasingly suggesting that the device is rigged in favor of those at the top. Moreover, it could explain why some working family members are amenable to policy changes, consisting of in foreign policy, if those in the top earnings bracket protect the status quo.

But these distributional trends and perceptions the fairness room only part of the story. The escalating prices for healthcare, childcare, and education, among other significant household expenditures, have actually transformed what it means to be earning a middle income. As households struggle to fulfill the unavoidable costs for an easy necessities, castle are forced to reconsider taking a vacation, renovating a home, buying a new car, retiring once planned, or paying down household debt. A middle-class standard of living numerous decades ago did no entail having actually to do such trade-offs.

Attaining a comfortable middle-class typical of life today might require gift in the upper-middle earnings bracket, if not the upper-income bracket, depending on the local prices of living. However it is increasingly an overwhelming to climb right into those ranks with only a bachelor’s degree—and especially so there is no one. Working families appropriately maintain sober expectations around their long-term financial future, also as economic growth rates climb, joblessness levels drop, and business and consumer to trust soar in the close to term.

Many options to the longterm economic obstacles confronting America’s middle class lie in transforms to domestic policies on taxes, education, worker training, healthcare, childcare, pensions, family members leave, job-related licensing, housing, infrastructure, transportation, and corporate governance.

Many solutions to the permanent economic difficulties confronting America’s middle course lie in alters to residential policies ~ above taxes, education, worker training, healthcare, childcare, pensions, household leave, occupational licensing, housing, infrastructure, transportation, and also corporate governance. These problems will remain subjects of conflict within and throughout party lines. President Donald Trump suggests that the united States more importantly demands a different foreign policy—an America an initial foreign policy—to aid the middle class. At least with respect to profession policy, the is not alone. A sizable number of Democrats and also Republicans re-publishing Trump’s watch that cost-free trade agreements brokered through past managements have not served American workers and they have to have, even as they inquiry his negotiating tactics and also oppose many other elements of his domestic and international agendas.

Thus, we have arrived in ~ an inflection suggest for U.S. International policy. Some core tenets of the U.S. Function abroad space being referred to as into question because important politics actors, ~ above both political parties of the aisle, think these tenets no longer serve the understand of America’s middle class. U.S. Foreign policy ambitions that past years now appear to it is in in stress with economic realities in ~ home, in stark comparison to their convergence in the after-effects of the second World War.

The Evolving Intersection that U.S. International Policy and Economic Considerations

Post–World battle II Convergence of international Policy and also Domestic economic Well-Being

American and also European leader had already begun thinking about establishing a Western-led international order complying with the an excellent Depression and the development of authoritarian blocs in the interwar years.4 however the appearance of the Soviet danger in the so late 1940s, following the second World War, noted a clear, strategy rationale for the United says to develop up that defenses, prolong a security umbrella end European and Pacific allies, and also invest in their postwar financial reconstruction. America required to develop up “the West” together a bulwark against the spread out of communism and also Soviet aggression.

U.S. Political leaders relied on an exceptional and unique collection of situations to market a wake up American windy on the imperative for assuming major leadership duties abroad. In addition to the Soviet hazard that provided a strategy rationale, the results of the 2nd World War listed an financial rationale, too. The war effort had aided to power components of the U.S. Economy, if largely destroying the abundant capacities the economic rivals in Europe and also Japan. Thus, U.S. Economic assistance to countries after the war offered to create much more markets overseas for U.S. Products, with little to are afraid from international import competition. It thus demonstrably progressed U.S. Financial prosperity.

In the post-Depression era, workers comprising America’s expanding postwar middle course enjoyed higher wages—thanks in no small part to the power of collective bargaining they delighted in through high rates of union participation. Significant U.S. Industries could afford to pay higher wages due to the fact that of minimal foreign competition. Moreover, both businesses and also workers reaped benefits from greater levels of government spending on education and infrastructure throughout president Franklin D. Roosevelt’s new Deal era of recovery programs.

The large prosperity and also economic security took pleasure in by the American middle class in the quarter century following the second World war laid a strong foundation at home for the United says to exercise an international leadership overseas. Together leadership had the United claims brokering the world’s very first truly an international trade agreement, the General covenant on Tariffs and also Trade. The United says served as the chief architect and also underwriter of worldwide institutions, including the United nations (UN), the civilization Bank, and also the international Monetary money (IMF). These institutions helped offer universal legitimacy to ethics at the love of the U.S.-led western order. They acted as force multipliers in support of U.S. Foreign policy, offering a auto for global burden-sharing. The UN’s existence also detailed a framework for managing an excellent power competition, even though Cold war dynamics prevented the security Council and other UN bodies from realizing their full potential.

From the so late 1940s to the 1960s, the United states did indeed have a “grand strategy” that married its international policy purposes with its domestic economic realities. Yet the strategy started to fray in the 1970s, prefiguring a change in the 1980s towards the diminished role of the state, jae won liberalization, and globalization. U.S. Economic assist and favorable terms of trade granted to Europe and also Japan thrived in accelerating the countries’ resurgence. However, it additionally hastened their arrival through the 1970s in the United says as fierce financial competitors, at precisely the time as soon as the country was facing mounting economic, political, and social strife. As foreign competition rose, the interests of major U.S. Manufacturers looking come decrease costs, and those of organized labor seeking come sustain greater wages and also benefits, came to a head. Fissures within the democratic Party also emerged. The nation made strides to combat racial discrimination together the civil legal rights movement acquired steam. However in the process, many southern Democrats moved to the Republican Party, dealing a punch to the political coalition on i beg your pardon Roosevelt had relied to construct the brand-new Deal.

From the late 1940s come the 1960s, the United says did indeed have a “grand strategy” that married its international policy goals with its domestic economic realities. However the strategy began to fray in the 1970s, prefiguring a change in the 1980s toward the diminished duty of the state, jae won liberalization, and also globalization.

This to be happening as economic growth slowed and unemployment and also inflation—“stagflation”—soared. The Vietnam War, in enhancement to claiming 10s of countless American lives, split the nation and added to skyrocketing national debt. Encountering severe fiscal challenges, the United claims abandoned the Bretton Woods kinds that addressed exchange prices to the U.S. Dollar and constrained worldwide capital flows. And also trust in federal government itself eroded throughout the Vietnam War and the Watergate politics scandal. The unified States showed up to it is in in decline—its relative advantages receding—and, hence, political decision-makers wavered in between détente and also confrontational foreign policy.

Post–Cold battle Attempts to Realign U.S. Foreign Policy and also Economic Security

The end of the Cold War developed a brand-new geopolitical truth in the 1990s. The united States arised as the lone an international superpower in a much more peaceful world. Then president George H.W. Shrub put forward a vision because that a “New civilization Order” led by the united States. No longer dealing with an existential risk from overseas, U.S. Leaders confronted growing residential demands to prioritize festering economic obstacles at home.

Democratic and Republican managements in the 1990s and 2000s comment to these pressures by do the efforts to construct a international policy that would promote financial prosperity. Lock assumed the the transition to an open, integrated worldwide economy, through the complete inclusion the economies roughly the world, consisting of a increasing China, would power an international economic growth and also create new opportunities for U.S. Exports and investment. They moved to leverage the benefits of an incorporated North American manufacturing platform come compete an ext effectively in the new global economy. And also they tried to shift the ahead U.S.-led west order—which had actually helped bind America’s allies and also partners together through open trade, common values, and also collective activity on common security challenges—into a U.S.-led international order. Castle sought to get Russia and China top top board v such one order, quite than to exclude, them from it—to ultimately create a common stake in the worldwide order and also broaden the global coalition to assist counter transnational threats. As a result, the United says would have the ability to reduce its security on defense and great power competition; increase residential investments in education, infrastructure, other long-term efficiency factors, and wage growth; and also ultimately balance that is budget.

However, the U.S. Took on this course without repairing the society compact amongst government, business, labor, and also communities the had begun to fray in the 1970s. The pro-growth strategies delivered windfall profits for that company shareholders and those in the upper-income bracket, while earnings for rank-and-file employees stagnated. The new an international market produced enormous new opportunities because that U.S. Companies to sell products and also services abroad, yet it additionally thrust American workers into competition with China, Mexico, and also other low-wage countries. Many neighborhoods lost their key sources the economic task due come outsourcing and also offshoring.

Furthermore, the United claims was ultimately forced to rise defense spending—first as result of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq complying with the September 11 terrorist attacks and then because of the rebirth of geopolitical competition with China and also Russia. The combination of unfunded wars, raised defense spending, escalating costs for entitlement spending in an aging nation, and tax cuts once again led to skyrocketing national debt, adding to the nation’s fiscal challenges as it confronted the good Recession.

Prevailing Uncertainty and Contradictions

Today, over there is confusion at home and also abroad about the trajectory that U.S. International policy. The post–Cold war era appears to have concerned an end. Any type of hopes that revitalizing the an ext peaceful and also prosperous U.S.-led “New civilization Order” envisaged three decades earlier have given means to deep anxieties around what lies front in a more contested strategic environment.

Many across the politics spectrum are arguing for reinvigorating the west alliance to contend with resurgent political geography competition v China and also Russia. Castle are also calling for tougher activity to combat mercantilist and also unfair Chinese trade practices. Yet they appear ambivalent, conflicted, or split over the main point tenets of vault U.S. Techniques to unite “the West.” These main point tenets once had leaving no doubt about U.S. Security guarantees for allies; actively supporting a Europe the is whole, free, and also at peace; strenuously defending democracy and also human rights; leading and maintaining a united front in international establishments to breakthrough shared interests and values; and promoting totally free trade.

The trump administration’s nationwide security strategy files indicate that these principles proceed to guide U.S. Foreign policy, albeit with key adjustments intended with the transition from a autonomous to a Republican administration and through the changes in the strategic environment. But the main point underlying principles, which have actually guided U.S. International policy over the last numerous decades, appear to reflect much more continuity 보다 change.5

Trump’s own interpretation that his America an initial foreign policy, however, entails a an ext dramatic rest from the past. The is not simply pushing allies of the north Atlantic Treaty organization (NATO) to spend an ext on their own defense, as previous presidents have done, yet is likewise calling right into question the basic benefits the United claims derives indigenous alliances. He is pressing China on unfair trade practices—for which there is vast support throughout the politics spectrum (for the goal, no necessarily the tactics). However he is additionally imposing tariffs top top imported steel and aluminum from allies and has at miscellaneous moments intimidated tariffs top top imported automobiles and also auto parts on nationwide security grounds. And also he proceeds to propose huge cuts come U.S. Foreign help and contributions to global organizations. These are simply some of the major changes come U.S. Foreign policy that is follow in the surname of proceeding the economic well-being that American workers and also families.

The relationship in between U.S. International policy and middle-class well-being currently commands facility stage, in ~ a time when the trajectory that the U.S. Role in the people has concerned an inflammation point. Would a far-ranging change to U.S. Foreign policy, whether follow me the currently of Trump’s America first policy or otherwise, resolve the reasons of the financial struggles American families face? family member to residential policies, just how much does U.S. International policy really matter to the financial well-being of the American middle class? just how do the domestic and also international agendas right together? this are some of the huge questions discover in this study, as component of a larger effort to determine ways to do U.S. International policy work far better for the American middle class.

Ohio together a Bellwether State

This report begins to tackle the above questions indigenous the ground up, utilizing Ohio as a compelling very first case study. Ohio as soon as represented what journalist Neal Peirce explained in the 1970s together “the personification that the Middle class Society” in America.6 Today, Ohio’s economic and political dynamics stand for a microcosm of the country itself. Some of its cities, such as Cincinnati and also Columbus, space prospering as they attract young, education talent and global investors come a modern, diversified twenty-first-century economy. The state has actually rural areas thriving with fertile farms and also agribusiness. And also it boasts numerous shale resources and hosts armed forces facilities and units the are vital to the nation’s security and also the state’s economy.

Yet Ohio additionally has inner cities and also rural locations under stress. There are towns struggling to reinvent us after the devastation of your twentieth-century production facilities due to automation and trade. The state confronts resource constraints to upgrade an essential infrastructure and also upskill that is workforce.

Altogether, Ohio’s regions and also congressional delegation expectancy the politics spectrum the conservative flexibility Caucus members, classic Republicans, middle Democrats, and social and also economic progressives. Since 2010, it has actually been led through a Republican governor v a nationwide profile whose national politics defy succinct categorization. And, as is regularly said, Ohio stays a bellwether state. Every presidential candidate since 1964 that won Ohio recorded the White House, consisting of Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012 and Donald trump card in 2016.

To more understand Ohio’s increasingly diverse economic interests and also challenges, Carnegie partnered with OSU’s man Glenn college of windy Affairs. The college has actually been leading number of research efforts on the future that Ohio’s economy and also its middle class, including through the towards a new Ohio project and also Alliance for the American Dream project. To provide added core entry on Ohio’s realities, the college convened researchers linked with those efforts, enlisted the field of expertise of its leading academic authorities top top Ohio’s economy, and also drew ~ above its statewide networks.

Local Perspectives

There is a rich conflict taking ar within the Washington, DC–based foreign policy establishment about the future direction that the U.S. Duty abroad. This research introduces part less acquainted voices and viewpoints into the mix. It seeks to reveal those in the nation’s capital responsible for developing and implementing foreign policies to the diverse perspectives Ohioans refer on international issues affecting the middle class. The aim is not to offer Ohio on any particular set of policies devised in Washington. Rather, that is to offer Washington on the need to much better understand the aspirations that middle-class families and also communities in Ohio, the constraints lock face, and the perceptions lock hold around how U.S. Foreign policy affects your interests.

Recent research study undertaken by the team in ~ OSU listed the structure for this study, an especially three documents published by the man Glenn university as part of its toward a new Ohio project. William Shkurti, a former budget plan director in Ohio’s state government, and Fran Stewart, an Ohio-based former journalist and also current public plan researcher on local economic development, authored the papers.7

To complement the research, number of dozen interviews and also focus groups were conducted across Ohio v state officials, heads of economic advancement associations, entrepreneurs, tiny business owners, local labor leaders, and also local public organizations. The team at OSU—which contained Professor Ned Hill, a leading experienced on Ohio’s manufacturing industry—drew up the list of interviews. Fran Stewart, that is based in Cleveland but grew up near southern Ohio’s Appalachian region, organized and also led the interviews and focus groups. Members that Carnegie’s Geoeconomics and also Strategy program joined plenty of of them. The interviews took ar in six communities representing Ohio’s distinct regions: Cleveland, Columbus, Coshocton, Dayton, Lima, and also Marion. This permitted the study team to record perspectives native (1) large cities that drive lot of the state’s economy, yet are an extremely different from every other; (2) smaller cities the are thriving or struggling to reinvent themselves; and (3) an ext rural counties with various economic outlooks. The mix the communities additionally ensured that the interviews spanned areas that voted because that Trump and areas that voted because that Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election, by both overwhelming and also narrow spare part (see number 2).

Members that Ohio’s conference delegation and also their staffs, and DC-based national business and trade associations and also labor organizations, every possess extremely beneficial perspective top top the issues in question. Task pressure members briefed few of these representatives on this effort and benefited from their informal advice. But no Washington-based officials were included among the officially interviews, due to the fact that priority was provided to shedding light on neighborhood perspectives.

The interviews conducted in Ohio constitute a very important input come this study. They prompted and provoked evaluation of scholastic literature and government statistics. They detailed concrete anecdotes and examples to make basic points more specific. And also they notified the report’s focus and organization. However, the study’s findings and conclusions space not based on the interviews alone. The interviews stand for a reasonably small sample size. And, as varied as the places were, various perspectives may have arised in various other locations, such as Akron, Ashtabula, Athens, Cincinnati, Toledo, and Youngstown.

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Underlying Themes

Key messages arising from the interviews dropped into three wide categories:

The reading of the past matters. Trump’s “Make America good Again” slogan clearly speaks to countless Ohioans’ sense of nostalgia and also grievance about a time as soon as the state led the nation in transporting good-paying manufacturing jobs that do a middle-class lifestyle obtainable to most households (with the notable exemption of civilization of color and other marginalized groups). Countless describe the net loss of around 750,000 production jobs between 1969 and also 2009 together centrally appropriate to the decrease of Ohio’s center class.8 however views diverge significantly over the degree to which trade policy created that outcome loved one to various other factors, such together automation and domestic competition. In reality, the reason of production job losses was no an either/or proposition, as few of the national-level conflict sometimes implies. The family member weight of different determinants varied across time and place end the previous fifty years.

To better understand exactly how trade policy and also other factors contributed to shaping Ohio’s economy, chapter Two explains the change of Ohio’s production sector over the last half century, illustration on state-based and national-level research. This historical grounding helps show why a emphasis on trade alone walk not execute justice to the full range of battles various communities confront in the twenty-first-century economy. It likewise helps melted some light on why the disputes over trade v China, the future that the Trans-Pacific cooperation (TPP), and the renegotiation that NAFTA have been therefore contentious and emotionally fraught. Due to the recentness that the renegotiation that NAFTA, this report walk not talk about the effect it will have actually on Ohio’s middle class.

Most interviewees plainly identified themselves as internationally oriented, in donate of international investment and also fair trade on a level play field and also adamantly opposed to seeing the civilization in zero-sum terms.

Present realities matter even more. practically all interviewees, including those most wistful about the past, emphasized the need for those in Washington, DC, to devise global policies the reflect the situations Ohio’s middle class now faces. They recognize that the production sector will never account for the very same proportion that high-paying middle-class work that the did in the 1950s. Yet, at the exact same time, they stressed just how Ohio’s manufacturing sector and its economy an ext generally have come a long method since the at an early stage 1980s, once the currently resented and also outdated “Rust Belt” label emerged. The structure of Ohio’s economy and also its outlook in 2018 are very different than they were in earlier decades. Chapter Three focuses on the opportunities and also challenges arising for the middle class in Ohio’s progressively diversified economy. State officials will have to compete with a broad range of domestic policy situations as they job-related to develop good-paying jobs, make an ext Ohioans qualified because that those jobs, and help support the working poor and also those left behind through the modern-day economy.

Policies that account for places with varied circumstances and challenges issue most. The six micro–case researches of Columbus, Cleveland, Dayton, Lima, Marion, and also Coshocton, as in-depth in thing Four, highlight vividly the divergent fortunes of cities and towns in a transforming global economy. There is plainly no single significant change to U.S. International policy the will breakthrough the financial interests the the center class, due to the fact that those interests us vary. However, caricatures the the opposing attention of those in Trump and Democratic strongholds perform not show up to reflect reality. Ohioans are not neatly split into camps: isolationists matches globalists, protectionists versus totally free traders, supporters of a zero-sum matches positive-sum world. Most interviewees plainly identified us as globally oriented, in favor of international investment and fair trade on a level playing field and adamantly opposed to seeing the civilization in zero-sum terms. The differences among Ohioans’ opinions were much more nuanced, together elaborated in their very own words in thing Four, i beg your pardon is the love of this report.

Based ~ above the data and also perspectives underlying this themes, as well as their own experiences in government, task pressure members determined five to adjust of policy directions and also questions that policymakers will need to grapple with to far better advance the economic well-being of America’s middle class. Elaborated in greater detail in chapter Five, they facility on:

Clarifying the U.S. National economic interestsLinking profession to a considerable economic strategyDeveloping a national strategy because that foreign direct investmentHighlighting the economic trade-offs about defense spendingDefining the U.S. Global leadership role and its economic implications

Notes

2 Ibid.

3 Pew Research center tabulation of Survey customer Finances public-use data. Rakesh Kochhar, Pew research study Center, “Wealth space Is at highest Record Level” in “The American middle Class,” gift to the Carnegie task Force, Washington, DC, November 17, 2017.

4 This historic review that the intersection the U.S. Foreign and domestic plan in the post–Second civilization War and also post–Cold war eras attract from, and also are notified by, the adhering to sources:

Rawi Abdelal and also John G. Ruggie, “Chapter 7: The values of embedded Liberalism: society Legitimacy and global Capitalism,” in brand-new Perspectives on Regulation, ed. David Moss and John Cisternino (Cambridge, MA: The Tobin Project, 2009).

Hal Brands, What good Is cool Strategy? Power and Purpose in American Statecraft indigenous Harry S. Truman come George W. Bush (Ithaca: Cornell university Press, 2014).

Hal Brands, American grand Strategy in the period of Trump (Brookings institution Press, 2018).

Hal Brands, Making the Unipolar Moment: U.S. Foreign Policy and also the increase of the Post-Cold war Order (Ithaca: Cornell college Press, 2018).

Jefferson Cowie, Great Exception: The new Deal and the boundaries of American Politics (Princeton: Princeton university Press, 2016).

Jefferson Cowie, Stayin’ Alive: The 1970s and also the critical Days that the working Class (New York: The new Press, 2010).

John Ikenberry, “The legend of Post-Cold war Chaos,” Foreign Affairs 73, no. 3 (May/June 1996): 79-91.

Jonathan Kirshner, American power After the financial Crisis (Ithaca, NY: Cornell university Press, 2014).

Dani Rodrik, The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future the the people Economy (New York: W.W. Norton and also Company, 2011).

“Summary the the 2018 national Defense Strategy the the United says of America: Sharpening the American Military’s compete Edge,” January 2018, department of Defense: James Mattis, https://dod.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf.

6 Neal Peirce, The Megastates that America: People, Politics and Powerin the Ten good States (New York: W. W. Norton, 1972), 299.

7 william Shkurti and Fran Stewart, towards a new Ohio file series, The john Glenn university of publicly Affairs, 2018, http://glenn.osu.edu/toward-a-new-ohio/.

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8 william Shkurti and also Fran Stewart, “The decrease of Ohio,” toward a brand-new Ohio record series, The john Glenn university of publicly Affairs, 2018, http://glenn.osu.edu/toward-a-new-ohio/.