The Jazz Age

Jazz music explosive as popular entertainment in the 1920s and brought African-American culture to the white center class.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe Jazz age was a post-World war I activity in the 1920s from which jazz music and dance emerged. Although the era ended with the outset the the Great Depression in 1929, jazz has lived top top in American renowned culture.The bear of jazz music is credited to african Americans, however both black and white americans alike space responsible for its tremendous rise in popularity.The increase of jazz coincided with the rise of radio broadcast and recording technology, which spawned the well-known “potter palm” reflects that consisted of big-band jazz performances.Female singers such as Bessie blacksmith emerged throughout this duration of postwar equality and also open sexuality, paving the means for future woman artists.Key TermsCharleston: A 1920s-era run popularized by african Americans and also named for the city the Charleston, south Carolina.potter palm: A popular type of radio show consisting of amateur concerts and big-band jazz performances transfer from urban such as brand-new York and also Chicago.flapper: A young mrs whose unconventional clothing and also progressive perspective personified the free spirit of the Roaring Twenties and the Jazz Age.

If freedom was the attitude of the Roaring Twenties, then jazz was the soundtrack. The Jazz age was a social period and movement the took ar in America during the 1920s native which both brand-new styles that music and also dance emerged. Largely attributed to african Americans employing new musical techniques along with traditional african traditions, jazz soon increased to America’s white center class.

Birth the Jazz

Following world War I, large numbers the jazz musicians migrated from brand-new Orleans to significant northern urban such as Chicago and brand-new York, causing a broader dispersal the jazz as various styles emerged in various cities. Together the 1920s progressed, jazz rose in popularity and also helped to generate a cultural shift. Because of its popular in speakeasies, illegal nightclubs wherein alcohol was sold during Prohibition, and also its proliferation due to the development of an ext advanced record devices, jazz became an extremely popular in a brief amount that time, through stars including duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, and also Chick Webb. Several renowned entertainment venues such as the Apollo Theater and the cotton Club involved epitomize the Jazz Age.


Cab Calloway: Cab Calloway became one that the most famous musicians the the Jazz age in the 1920s.

Growth that Jazz

African-American jazz was played much more frequently on metropolitan radio stations 보다 on your suburban counterparts. Young people of the 1920s were influenced by jazz to rebel against the traditional culture of previous generations, a rebellion the went hand-in-hand through fads such together the bold fashion statements of the flappers and brand-new radio concerts.

Dances such together the Charleston, developed by afri Americans, instantly ended up being popular amongst different demographics, including among young white people. With the advent of large radio broadcasts in 1922, Americans to be able come experience various styles the music there is no physically visiting a jazz club. Through its broadcasts and concerts, the radio noted Americans through a trendy new avenue for experimenting unfamiliar cultural experiences native the lull of their living rooms. The many popular form of radio display was a “potter palm,” an amateur concert and also big-band jazz performance broadcast from new York and Chicago.

The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra, 1921: during the Jazz Age, renowned music included current dance songs, new songs, and show tunes.

Due come the gyeongju prejudice prevalent at most radio stations, white American jazz artists got much more air time than black jazz artist such together Louis Armstrong, Jelly roll Morton, and also Joe “King” Oliver. Big-band jazz, choose that of James Reese in Europe and also Fletcher Henderson in new York, was additionally popular ~ above the radio and also brought an African-American style and influence to a mostly white cultural scene.


“The Jelly role Blues”: “The Jelly role Blues” was one of the very first jazz song to reach a extensive audience through radio play.

Flappers and also Ladies of Jazz

The surfacing of flappers—women noted for their flamboyant format of dress, steady attitudes, and modernized morals—began come captivate society during the Jazz Age. This coincided with a duration in American culture during i beg your pardon many an ext opportunities became obtainable for women, in your social lives and also especially in the entertain industry.

Several well known female musicians emerged throughout the 1920s, including Bessie Smith, who garnered attention no only since she to be a great singer, but additionally because she to be a black woman. It to be not till the 1930s and 1940s, however, the female jazz and also blues singers such as Smith, Ella Fitzgerald, and also Billie holiday were important recognized and respected as effective artists transparent the music industry. Your persistence paved the means for many more female artists that came afterward.


Bessie Smith: The music the singer Bessie Smith to be immensely popular during the Jazz Age, and she both influenced and also paved the way for generations of female artists.

Although the Jazz Age finished as the good Depression struck and victimized America transparent the 1930s, jazz has actually lived on in American popular society and remains a colorful musical genre to this day.

Art movements of the 1920s

Art Deco to be a dominant style style that the 1920s imaginative era that likewise was affected by the Dada, Expressionist, and Surrealist movements.

Learning Objectives

Describe well-known art movements of the 1920s

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe 1920s to be a period of far-ranging artistic growth that contained definable colleges of design, architecture, and also art that space still recognizable and influential today.Art Deco was the dominant style of design and also architecture in the 1920s. That originated and spread transparent Europe before making its existence felt in north American design.Expressionism and also Surrealism were popular art motions in the 1920s that originated in Europe. Surrealism involved aspects of surprise and unexpected juxtapositions, and both movements taken on a ideology of nonconformity.Dada started in Zürich, Switzerland, and also the layout incorporated nonsense, absurdity, and cubist elements.Key TermsDada: A cultural movement that started in Zürich, Switzerland, during people War I and peaked from 1916 to 1920. The activity primarily associated visual arts, literature (mainly poetry), theatre, and graphic design, and also was characterized by nihilism, intended irrationality, disillusionment, cynicism, chance, randomness, and the rejection of the prevailing criter in art.Expressionism and Surrealism: Avant-garde modernist social movements, originating in Europe in the early on twentieth century.Art Deco: an eclectic artistic and design layout that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished around the world throughout the 1930s and into the human being War II era.

The 1920s to be a remarkable period of creative thinking that lugged forth new, bold motions that readjusted the method the people looked at itself, both externally and also internally. In design and also architecture, art Deco originated in Europe and also spread throughout the continent prior to its influence moved throughout the Atlantic to north America. In art, the movements known as Expressionism, Dada, and Surrealism every played significant roles in reconfiguring the focus and perception not just of intuitive arts, but likewise of literature, drama, and also design.

Art Deco

Art Deco to be a leading style in design and also architecture that the 1920s. Originating in Europe, it spread out throughout western Europe and North America in the mid-1920s and remained renowned through the 1930s and early 1940s, waning only after civilization War II. The name “Art Deco” is short for Arts Décoratifs, which come from the Exposition Internationale des arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exposition of modern-day Decorative and Industrial Arts) hosted in Paris in 1925. The an initial use the the hatchet is attributed come architect Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris, recognized as “Le Corbusier,” who wrote a series of write-ups titled, “1925 Expo: arts Déco,” in his journal, L’Esprit Nouveau.

The eclectic style emerged from the years in between World battle I and World war II, frequently referred to as the interwar period, and combined traditional handmade motifs with maker Age imagery and also materials and also an adopt of technology. Visually that is identified by affluent colors, lavish ornamentation, and also geometric shapes. Artist employing the art Deco style often drew inspiration native nature and also initially favored bent lines, though rectilinear designs came to be increasingly popular.

The Chrysler Building: arts Deco architectural layout in the United states was epitomized by the Chrysler building in brand-new York City.

In the unified States, new York City’s Chrysler structure typified the arts Deco style. Other American instances can be found in Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. The Hoover Dam, constructed in between 1931 and 1936 top top the border in between Nevada and also Arizona, contains Art Deco motifs throughout the structure consisting of its water-intake towers and also brass elevator doors.

Expressionism, Dada, and also Surrealism

German Expressionism began prior to World war I and also exerted a solid influence on artist who adhered to throughout the 1920s. Initially concentrated on poetry and painting, Expressionism frequently presented the world from a solely subjective perspective, radically distorting it for an emotional impact that evokes atmosphere or ideas rather than physical reality. Countless artists, however, began to protest Expressionist tendencies together the te advanced.

The functions of Vincent valve Gogh and also Edvard Munch’s renowned 1893 painting, The Scream, room thought to have influenced Expressionists, that counted amongst their number painters such as Wassily Kandinsky, Erich Heckel, and Franz Marc, as well as dancer mary Wigman.


The Scream: Edvard Munch’s 1893 painting, The Scream, affected twentieth-century Expressionist artists.

Dada started in Zurich, Switzerland, during world War I and also became an worldwide phenomenon, back it to be initially an informal movement intended come protest the outbreak of world War I and the bourgeois, nationalist, and also colonialist interests the Dadaists thought were root reasons of the conflict. The movement opposed social and intellectual conformity in art and in culture in general, normally displaying political affinities with the radical left. The reason and also logic that the capitalist system had led come the war, Dadaists believed, and also their rejection of that belief led come an embrace of chaos and irrationality in your art. Machines, technology, and also Cubist facets were functions of your work.

Dada artists met and also formed groups of like-minded partner in Paris, Berlin, Cologne, and new York City who involved in tasks such together public gatherings, demonstrations, and also publication of art and also literary journals. Noteworthy Dadaists had Richard Huelsenbeck, who developed the Berlin group, and also George Grosz, who dubbed his job-related a protest, “against this world of shared destruction.”


Republican Automatons: The 1920 painting, Republican Automatons, by George Grosz was an example of Dadaist protest art.

Arising native Dada tasks during civilization War I and centered in Paris, Surrealism to be a cultural movement that started in the at an early stage 1920s. Surrealism spread approximately the world and affected the intuitive arts, literature, theater, film, and music. The movement likewise informed political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.


The Elephant Celebes: Max Ernst’s 1921 oil painting, The Elephant Celebes, was an instance of european Surrealism, which profoundly affected the artistic society of the united States.

Surrealist functions featured elements of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions, and also non sequitur. Plenty of Surrealist artists and writers concerned their work as the product expression that the movement’s philosophy. The movement’s leader, French anarchist and also antifascist writer André Breton, emphasized the Surrealism was, over all, a revolutionary movement. In 1924 he published the Surrealist Manifesto, which dubbed the motion “pure psychic automatism.” Spanish artist Salvador Dali, ideal known for his 1931 work, The Persistence that Memory, was among the most famed practitioners that Surrealism.


The Persistence that Memory: Salvador Dali’s 1931 painting, The Persistence that Memory, is among the most well-known examples of Surrealism.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe 1920s in cinema spawned the first feature with sound effects and also music, Don Juan, and the an initial movie v talking sequences, The  Jazz  Singer.Following the increase of talkies, huge studios began acquiring movie-theater chains throughout the country.Cartoon shorts were well-known in movie theaters during this time; the so late 1920s witnessed the emergence of Walt Disney.Most Hollywood pictures adhered very closely to formulas—Western, slapstick comedy, musical, animated cartoon, biopic—and the same creative teams often worked top top film, make by the very same studio.Key TermsTalkies: The nickname given to movies with sound, which finished the era the silent films in Hollywood.Golden period of Hollywood: A duration during i m sorry Hollywood studios prolifically developed movies; it lasted from the end of the quiet era in American cinema in the so late 1920s to the beforehand 1960s.Don Juan: A 1926 Warner Bros. Film, command by Alan Crosland. It to be the first feature-length film with synchronized Vitaphone sound effects and musical soundtrack, though it has no talked dialogue.

At the beginning of the 1920s, movies were silent and also colorless. By the end of the decade, cinema had changed significantly with major leaps in an innovation that marked the “Golden period of Hollywood” and ended the era the the silent film, which itself had ended the previous, prevalent popularity that vaudeville theater. Box-office sales leapt to new heights as the studio system came to be the dominant service model in movie making.

Color and also Talkies

The an initial all-color feature, The toll of the Sea, was released in 1922, through the next large leap comes in 1926 v the Warner Brothers pictures (later shortened come Warner Bros.) release of Don Juan, the very first feature with sound effects and also music. In 1927, Warner Bros. Adhered to that cinematic milestone with an additional in the type of The Jazz Singer, the an initial sound attribute to include minimal talking sequences. This release arguably launched what became known as the “Golden age of Hollywood.”


The Jazz Singer, 1927: Theatrical poster because that The Jazz Singer, the very first feature film to include talking sequences, which began the era that “talkies.”

The public go wild for “talkies,” and movie studios convert to sound almost overnight. In 1928, Warner Bros. Released Lights that New York , the an initial all-talking feature film. In the same year, the first sound cartoon, “Dinner Time,” to be released. Warner Bros. Ended the te in 1929 by unveiling the an initial all-color, all-talking attribute film, On through the Show.


Cartoon shorts, making use of the relocating sketch method of animation, were popular in movie theaters during this time. The late 1920s experienced the emergence of Walt Disney and also his eponymous studio. Disney’s marquee character, Mickey Mouse, do his debut in “Steamboat Willie” on November 18, 1928, in ~ the nest Theater in new York City. Mickey would certainly go on come star in more than 120 cartoon shorts, as well as in “The Mickey computer mouse Club” and also other specials. This jump-started Walt Disney Studios and also led come the creation of other personalities going right into the 1930s. Oswald, a character produced by Disney in 1927 prior to Mickey, to be contracted by global Studios for distribution purposes and starred in a series of shorts between 1927 and also 1928. He to be the very first Disney personality to be merchandised.


Walt Disney: In 1928, Walt Disney offered the world “Steamboat Willie,” aka Mickey Mouse, complied with by plenty of other cartoon personalities who have become instantly recognizable.

The Studios and Stars

Most Hollywood pictures adhered very closely to formulas—Western, slapstick comedy, musical, animated cartoon, or biopic—and the same creative teams regularly worked on movies made through the very same studio. Cedric Gibbons and Herbert Stothart constantly worked ~ above MGM films, Alfred Newman functioned at 20th Century Fox for 20 years, Cecil B. DeMille’s films were nearly all made at Paramount Pictures, and director Henry King’s films were greatly made because that 20th Century Fox.

Each studio had its own style and also characteristic touches. Films were additionally easily recognizable as the product of a specific studio largely based upon the actors that appeared. MGM, because that example, declared it had contracted, “more stars than there are in heaven.”

The period saw the emergence of box-office stars, countless of whom space still family names, such together Mae Murray, Ramón Novarro, Rudolph Valentino, Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd, Warner Baxter, Clara Bow, Louise Brooks, Bebe Daniels, billy Dove, Dorothy Mackaill, mary Astor, Nancy Carroll, Janet Gaynor, Charles Farrell, wilhelm Haines, Conrad Nagel, man Gilbert, Greta Garbo, Dolores del Río, Norma Talmadge, Colleen Moore, Nita Naldi, man Barrymore, Norma Shearer, Joan Crawford, mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Anna may Wong, and Al Jolson.


Louise Brooks: American actress Louise Brooks was among the box-office stars who became famous in the 1920s at the outset the the “Golden age of Hollywood.”

Each of this stars to be contracted to occupational for a particular studio and also distribution company, which was one facet of the studio mechanism that became the leading Hollywood organization model and continues today, albeit in a far less restrictive form that does no tie gibbs to any certain company.

Theater Monopolies

After the release and huge success of The Jazz Singer in 1927, Warner Bros. Was able to acquire its own string that movie theaters, purchase Stanley theaters and very first National Productions in 1928. MGM had actually owned the Loews cable of theaters since its formation in 1924, when the Fox film Corporation own the Fox Theatre chain. Paramount, i m sorry had already acquired Balaban and Katz in 1926, purchased a number of theaters in the late 1920s, come the suggest of holding a monopoly on theater in Detroit, Michigan. By the 1930s, every one of America’s theaters were owned through the “Big Five” studios: MGM, paramount Pictures, RKO, Warner Bros., and also 2oth Century Fox.

The toll of the Sea, 1922: The toll fee of the Sea, released in 1922, to be the first color attribute made in Hollywood.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsFlappers were young women well-known for their styles of quick hair, straight waists, and also above-the-knee hemlines, and for their basic disdain for social and also sexual norms.Flappers favored a young and also boyish style in women’s fashion, i m sorry largely arised as a result of French fashions, specifically those pioneered through the French designer Coco Chanel. Quick hair, planarization breasts, and also straight waists were some usual features that this look.Dance clubs and contests became an extremely popular in the 1920s. Timeless pieces, operettas, and also folk music to be all changed into well-known dance melodies in order to meet the windy craze for dancing. The cotton Club and also the Savoy Ballroom were well-known venues.The most renowned dances during the decade were the fox-trot, waltz, and also American tango. Native the early 1920s, a range of eccentric novelty dances were additionally developed including the Breakaway, Charleston, and Lindy Hop.Key TermsMusical: A stage performance, show, or film that contains singing, dancing, and musical numbers performed by the cast.Jazz: A music genre the originated in African-American neighborhoods during the late nineteenth and also early twentieth centuries. It combined various layouts including brass band, blues, and traditional afri music to become a unique, global genre that continues to evolve today.Charleston: A renowned dance during the 1920s, called for the earliest city in southern Carolina.Coco Chanel: (19 respectable 1883–10 January 1971) A French designer of women’s clothes and also founder the the Chanel brand. She is widely regarded as among the greatest designers in the background of fashion.

The 1920s experienced the rise of the flapper, a new breed the young women who wore quick skirts, bobbed their hair, danced, and also flouted social and sexual norms. Flappers were recognized for your style and also the extensive popularization of new cultural trends that accompanied it. Castle personified the musical and also dance movements emerging from the dance clubs play jazz and new versions the old music, which became enormously well-known in the 1920s and also into the at an early stage 1930s.

Flapper Style

Jazz and also other brand-new musical and also dance creates exploded onto culture in the 1920s. This pop-culture movement was personified by the flappers, who fashion layouts represented their totally free spirits and brand-new social openness. This layout largely arised as a an outcome of French fashions, especially those pioneered by the French designer Gabrielle Bonheur “Coco” Chanel. Called garçonne in French (“boy” v a feminine suffix), flapper layout aimed to make girls show up young and also boyish: short hair, planarization breasts, and also straight waists were common features that this look. Back the formats typically associated now v flappers walk not totally emerge until around 1926, there was very early association in the public mind in between unconventional appearance, outrageous behavior, and also the native “flapper.”


Coco Chanel, 1920: Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel to be a French designer who was extremely influential in the flapper fashion format of the 1920s.

The flapper look included short, disheveled hair in boyish formats such together the “bob cut,” if finger waving was provided as a method of styling. The evolving flapper appearance compelled “heavy makeup” in comparison to what had actually previously been acceptable outside of skilled use in the theater. With the development of the steel lipstick container and also compact mirrors, punishment stung lips and also an emphatic mouth came right into vogue. Huge, dark eyes greatly outlined in mascara and kohl-rimmed, were in style. Blush came right into fashion once it end to it is in a messy application process.

Pale skin to be originally considered to be the many attractive, however tanned skin came to be increasingly popular after coco Chanel donned a tan after spending too much time in the sunlight on holiday. A tan said a life that leisure, there is no the onerous must work. In this way, ladies aspired to look fit, athletic, and healthy. Jewel usually contained Art Deco pieces, consisting of beaded necklaces and brooches. Horn-rimmed glasses were also popular.

Despite any type of scandalous images flappers generated, their look came to be fashionable in a toned-down type among respectable older women. Significantly, the flappers removed the corset from female fashion, raised skirt and gown hemlines, and also popularized brief hair for women. Flapper costume were straight and also loose, leaving the arms bare and dropping the waistline to the hips. Silk or rayon stockings were organized up by garters. Skirts rose to just below the knee through 1927, enabling flashes of foot to it is in seen when a girl danced or walked v a breeze. High heels in between two and three inches additionally became popular.

Flappers did away through corsets and pantaloons in donate of “step-in” panties and simple bust bodices to save their chests in ar while dancing. They likewise wore new, softer and suppler corsets that reached to their hips, smoothing the totality frame, offering them a straight, up-and-down appearance, as opposed come the old corsets that slenderized the waist and accented the hips and also bust.


The Flapper Magazine: The sheathe of the November 1922 worry of The Flapper magazine.

Dance Music, Clubs, and Contests

In the flapper period, run music took parts of assorted existing musical styles and also created a brand-new form. Classic pieces, operettas, and also folk music were all transformed into popular dance melodies in order to satiate the general public craze for dancing. For example, numerous of the songs from the 1929 Technicolor music operetta, The Rogue Song, certification the urban Opera star Lawrence Tibbett, were rearranged and also released as dance music and also became famous club access time in 1929.

The arrival of “talkies,” motion photos with synchronized sound, make musicals all the rage. Hollywood film studios flooded the box office v extravagant and also lavish musical films, countless of which to be filmed in at an early stage Technicolor, a process that created color motion pictures rather than the starker black-and-white films. Among the most popular of these musicals, Gold Diggers that Broadway, came to be the highest-grossing film of the te in 1929.


Gold Diggers of Broadway: The 1929 musical, yellow Diggers that Broadway, ended up being the highest-grossing film of the decade.

The Harlem ar of brand-new York City played a vital role in the advancement of dance styles by serving together the ar of several famous entertainment venues where people from every walks the life, races, and also classes came together. The cotton Club featured black color performers and also catered come a white clientele, while the Savoy Ballroom catered to a greatly black clientele.

Dance Styles

Dance clubs throughout the United says sponsored contests in i m sorry dancers invented and also competed with new moves and professionals began to hone their an abilities in madness dance and other existing moves. The most popular dances throughout the te were the fox-trot, waltz, and American tango. Huge numbers of recordings labeling under these formats gave climb to a generation of famed recording and also radio artists.

From the at an early stage 1920s, however, the dance scene developed a selection of eccentric trends. The an initial of these were the Breakaway and the Charleston, which to be both based upon African-American musical styles and also beats, including the widely famous blues. The Charleston’s popularity explosive after its function in two 1922 Broadway shows. A brief Black Bottom dance craze, originating from the Apollo Theater, swept dance halls indigenous 1926 to 1927, instead of the Charleston in popularity. By 1927, the Lindy Hop, based upon the Breakaway and also the Charleston and integrating aspects of tap, became the leading social dance and also was the forebear that Swing dancing.

Josephine Baker does the Charleston: commemorated singer Josephine Baker dances the Charleston, among the new dances that brushed up pop culture in the 1920s.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe eugenics movement, which had its root in europe pseudoscience, played a major role in discussions on U.S. Immigration policy, particularly with the passage of the immigrant Act the 1924. Many thought immigrants to be inferior and should it is in prevented indigenous marrying and also breeding.State regulations were created in the late nineteenth and also early twentieth century to prohibit marriage and also force sterilization the the mentally ok in stimulate to protect against the “passing on” of mental condition to the next generation.Both class and race factored in to eugenic interpretations of “fit” and “unfit.” by using intelligence testing, American eugenicists asserted the social mobility was indicative of one’s genetic fitness.American eugenicists listed the so-called scientific proof supplied to justify racial oppression in the united States and Europe. Nazi administrators on trial for battle crimes in Nuremberg after World war II justified much more than 450,000 massive sterilizations through citing American eugenics programs together their inspiration.Key TermsCharles B. Davenport: (1866–1944) A prominent American eugenicist and biologist. The was among the leader of the American eugenik movement, which was directly affiliated in the sterilization of roughly 60,000 “unfit” Americans and also strongly influenced the Holocaust in Europe.eugenics: A social approach that advocates the improvement of human hereditary attributes through selective breeding.Francis Galton: (1822–1911) A brothers sociologist and also anthropologist who coined the hatchet “eugenics” and promoted the idea that the survive of the fittest in people through selective breeding.

Eugenics to be a field sociological and also anthropological research that ended up being popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries together a method of preserving and improving the population through cultivation of dominant gene groups. Fairly than considered scientific genetics, however, eugenics is currently generally associated with racist and also nativist aspects who preferred so-called “scientific” evidence for prejudicial beliefs and also government policies. The eugenics activity in the United claims was provided to justification laws allowing forced sterilizations of the holy spirit ill and prohibiting marriages and child bearing by immigrants, while in Europe, eugenik theories were provided by the Nazi regimen in Germany come justify thousands of sterilizations and, later, prevalent murder.

Origins and also Proliferation

In the time, eugenik was touted together scientific and progressive, the natural application the knowledge around breeding come the arena of human being life. Researcher interested in familial mental disorders conducted studies to document the heritability the illnesses such together schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Fairly than true science, though, eugenics was simply an ill-considered social ideology aimed at enhancing the high quality of the human populace by boosting reproduction between those with genes thought about desirable—Nordic, Germanic, and Anglo-Saxon peoples—and limiting procreation by those whose hereditary stock was viewed as much less favorable or i can not qualify to improve the human being gene pool. The method considered many viable in attaining this goal was the avoidance of marriage and breeding amongst targeted groups and also individuals, yet over time, the far an ext extreme action of sterilization became acceptable.

While these concepts existed because that centuries, the contemporary eugenics movement deserve to be traced come the uk in the late nineteenth and early twenty centuries. The concept of development made famed by Charles Darwin was used by English sociologist and also anthropologist Francis Galton, a half cousin that Darwin, to promote the idea of a human being survival of the fittest that could be enacted v selective breeding. That coined the hatchet “eugenics” in 1883, and in 1909, wrote the foreword come the first volume the the Eugenics Review, the newspaper of the Eugenics education and learning Society, which called him together its honorary president.


Francis Galton: A half cousin the Charles Darwin, Francis Galton founded ar of eugenik and advocated the innovation of the person gene pool v selective breeding.

Legitimizing and Legalizing

Eugenicists and supporters started organizing and also holding formal discussions and conferences and publishing records that proliferated v Europe and America. Three worldwide Eugenics Congresses to be held between 1912 and also 1932, the very first taking ar in London. Leonard Darwin, child of Charles, presided end the meeting of around 400 delegates from plenty of countries—including british luminaries such as the chief Justice lord Balfour, and the very first Lord that the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. The meeting offered as an indication the the growing popularity the the eugenik movement.

Second international Eugenics conference logo, 1921: eugenics was a popular pseudoscience in the early decades of the twentieth century and was promoted through three global Eugenics Congresses between 1912 and 1932.

The American eugenics motion was rooted in the biological determinist concepts of Galton and included those who believed in the hereditary superiority of specific Caucasian groups, supported strict immigration and anti-miscegenation laws, and supported the forcible sterilization of the poor, disabled, and also “immoral.”

Both class and also race factored right into eugenic interpretations of “fit” and also “unfit.” Using knowledge testing, American eugenicists asserted that social mobility was indicative that one’s hereditary fitness. This reaffirmed the currently class and also racial hierarchies and also explained why the top to middle course was predominately white, with center to upper class status gift a mite of “superior strains.” Eugenicists thought poverty to be a properties of hereditary inferiority, which supposed that that those considered “unfit” to be predominately of the reduced classes. Since poverty was connected with prostitution and “mental idiocy,” ladies of the lower classes to be the first to be considered “unfit” and also “promiscuous.” this women, that were generally immigrants or females of color, were discouraged from bearing children, and also were motivated to usage birth control.

American eugenics study was sponsor by identified philanthropists and carried the end at prestigiousuniversities, trickling down to classrooms where it to be presented as a major science. In 1906, J.H. Kellogg provided funding to aid found the gyeongju Betterment structure in fight Creek, Michigan. The Eugenics record Office (ERO) was founded in Cold feather Harbor, new York, in 1911 through the famous biologist Charles B. Davenport, utilizing money indigenous both the Harriman rail fortune and also the Carnegie Institution.


Charles Benedict Davenport: American biologist Charles B. Davenport founded the Eugenics document Office in 1911.

Laws were composed in the late nineteenth and also early twentieth centuries in America to prohibit marriage and also to force sterilization that the mentally ok in bespeak to avoid the “passing on” the mental illness to the following generation. The an initial state to present a compulsory sterilization bill was Michigan in 1897, but the proposed legislation failed come garner sufficient votes by legislators to it is in adopted. Eight year later, Pennsylvania’s state legislators happen a sterilization bill the was vetoed by the governor. Indiana came to be the an initial state to enact sterilization regulation in 1907, followed closely by Washington and also California in 1909.


Men and women were compulsorily sterilized for different reasons. Males were sterilized to treat their aggression and to get rid of their criminal behavior, while ladies were sterilized to manage the results of your sexuality. Due to the fact that women bore children, eugenicists organized women more accountable than guys for the reproduction of the much less “desirable” members that society. Eugenicists, therefore, targeted mainly women in their initiatives to control the bear rate, to “protect” white gyeongju health, and to weed out the“defectives” that society.

Sterilization rates throughout the country were fairly low, California being the exception, until the 1927 can be fried Court instance Buck v. Bell the legitimized the required sterilization of patient at a Virginia residence for the holy spirit retarded. These statutes were not abolished till the mid-twentieth century, with roughly 60,000 american legally sterilized.

Prior to the sterilization judgment in the supreme Court, eugenicists had already played an essential role in government policy by offer as expert advisers top top the risk of “inferior stock” native eastern and southern Europe throughout the Congressional debate over immigrant in the at an early stage 1920s. This caused passage the the federal Immigration plot of 1924, which diminished the variety of immigrants from abroad to 15 percent from previous years.


Harry H. Laughlin: bother H. Laughlin offered as manager of the Eugenics document Office in Cold feather Harbor, brand-new York.

There are additionally direct links between progressive American eugenicists such as Harry H. Laughlin and racial oppression in Europe. Laughlin composed the Virginia model statute the was the basis because that the Nazi serious Rudin’s law for the prevention of Hereditarily hurt Offspring. Before the currently of death camps in civilization War II, the idea the eugenics would lead to genocide was no taken seriously by the mean American. As soon as Nazi administrators went on psychological for war crimes in Nuremberg after ~ the war, however, castle justified an ext than 450,000 mass sterilizations in much less than a decade by citing U.S. Eugenik programs and also policies together their inspiration. These sterilizations were the precursor to the Holocaust, the Nazi attempt at genocide versus Jews and also other ethnic teams they considered unfavorable to the human gene pool.

The southerly Renaissance

The southerly Renaissance literary movement of the 1920s and also 1930s broke from the romantic view of the Confederacy.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAuthors the the southerly Renaissance addressed three significant themes: the burden of history related come slavery and loss, conservative southerly culture, and also the region’s association through racism and also slavery.The formation of the Fugitives, a team of poets and also critics based in Nashville following people War I, is often referred to as the beginning of the southerly Renaissance. Wilhelm Faulkner is related to as the southerly Renaissance’s many influential and famous writer.Opposition to industrialization in the southern following human being War ns was a famous theme among Southern Renaissance writers, who came to be known as “Southern Agrarians.”African-American writers from the South, such together Richard Wright, were not considered part of the southern Renaissance movement, i m sorry consisted specifically of white authors.Key TermsThe Fugitives: A group of poets and literary scholars who came together at Vanderbilt university in Nashville, Tennessee, unified States, around 1920.William Faulkner: (1897–1962) one American writer and also Nobel laureate native Oxford,Mississippi. That is finest known because that his 1929 novel, The Sound and the Fury.H.L. Mencken: (1880–1956) A journalist, satirist, cultural critic, and scholar. Well-known as the “Sage that Baltimore,” he is pertained to as one of the most prominent American writers and also prose stylists that the very first half of the twentieth century.

The southern Renaissance was a motion that reinvigorated American Southern literary works in the 1920s and 1930s. The writers of the movement broke from typical Southern cultural literary themes, significantly the regrettable autumn of the Confederacy, come address an ext personal and also modernized viewpoints consisting of opposition come industrialization and also the South’s abiding racism. The southerly Renaissance included famed authors such together William Faulkner, Tennessee Williams, and also Robert pen Warren. Perhaps ironically, however, this activity that explored gyeongju questions and also themes appeared to to exclude, African-American authors of the time.

Origins and also Themes

In the 1920s, the satirist H.L. Mencken led the strike on the genteel tradition in American literature, ridiculing the provincialism the American intellectual life. In his 1920 essay, “The Sahara the the Bozart,” a pun on a southerly pronunciation the “Beaux Arts,” the singled out the south as the most provincial and also intellectually barren region of the unified States, explain that since the civil War, pundit and cultural life over there had gone into terminal decline. This developed a storm that protest from in ~ conservative circles in the South. Numerous emerging southern writers, however, currently highly crucial of modern life in the South, to be emboldened through Mencken’s essay. In solution to the attacks of Mencken and also his imitators, southerly writers to be provoked come reassert southerly uniqueness and engage in a deeper exploration of the design template of southern identity.

Henry louis Mencken: H.L. Mencken was an prominent American writer and also social movie critic who unwittingly assisted to start the southern Renaissance literary movement.

The Fugitives

The start of the southerly Renaissance is regularly traced earlier to the tasks of a group known together ” The Fugitives,” a repertoire of poets and critics based in ~ Vanderbilt college in Nashville, Tennessee, simply after the civilization War I. The group contained John Crowe Ransom, Donald Davidson, Allen Tate, Robert pen Warren, and others. Together they created the magazine, The Fugitive (1922–1925), therefore named because the editor announced the they had actually fled, “from nothing much faster than indigenous the high-caste Brahmins the the Old South.”

The appearance of the southerly Renaissance together a literary and cultural movement also has been seen as a repercussion of the opened up that the predominantly rural south to external influences as result of the industrial growth that took ar in the an ar during and after human being War I. Southern opposition come industrialization to be expressed in the renowned essay collection, I’ll take My Stand: The South and also the Agrarian Tradition (1930), written by authors and also critics from the southern Renaissance who happened known together “Southern Agrarians.”

Previously, southern writers had tendency to emphasis on historic romances about the “Lost Cause” that the Confederate states of America, generally known together the “Confederacy.” This composing glorified the heroism the the Confederate Army and also civilian populace during the polite War and the supposedly “idyllic culture” the existed in the antebellum South. Southern Renaissance writers damaged from this heritage by addressing three major themes in your works. The very first was the burden of history in a location where many civilization still personally remembered slavery, Reconstruction, and a devastating military defeat. The 2nd was the South’s conservative culture, especially addressing how an individual could exist without shedding a feeling of identity in a an ar where family, religion, and also community were much more highly valued 보다 one’s personal and society life. The final theme to be the South’s troubling background with for to gyeongju issues.

Because the the chronological distance these writers had actually from the civil War and also slavery, they were able to carry objectivity come writings about the South. They additionally employed new, modernistic methods such as stream of awareness and facility narratives. Among the authors of the southern Renaissance, william Faulkner is arguably the many influential and also famous together the recipient of the Nobel compensation for literary works in 1949. Past Faulkner, playwright Tennessee Williams (Cat on a hot Tin Roof, The Glass Menagerie), author Robert pen Warren (All the king’s Men), and also others consisting of Caroline Gordon, Elizabeth Madox Roberts, Katherine ann Porter, and Allen Tate to be classified as southerly Renaissance writers.

William Faulkner, 1954: wilhelm Faulkner, author of the 1929 novel, The Sound and the Fury, was a leading voice in the southern Renaissance movement.


The southern Renaissance inspired many Southern authors of the 1940s, ’50s, and ’60s, consisting of authors Reynolds Price and Walker Percy, poet James Dickey, significant Southern Gothic movement members Flannery O’Connor and also Carson McCullers, Pulitzer Prize and also Presidential Medal of freedom recipient Eudora Welty, and also Harper Lee, that won the 1961 Pulitzer compensation for she novel, To kill a Mockingbird, i m sorry is considered a standard of American literature.

Exclusion of african Americans

Despite many writers that the southerly Renaissance exploring the South’s background of racism and also slavery with an eye toward healing those wounds, none of the prominent African-American authors of the day were watched as part of this literary movement. When the Harlem Renaissance was thought about a celebration and also rebirth the African society in America, there to be African-American writers that hailed indigenous the south who were no necessarily slotted right into either of the “Renaissance” groups.

Some the the many outspoken criticisms versus the idea the the lost cause of the Confederacy came from African-American, southerly writers former to world War I, including from Charles W. Chesnutt, that penned the novels, The home Behind the Cedars in 1900 and also The Marrow the Tradition the adhering to year. Yet African-American writers were not considered part of the southern literary legacy as characterized by the white, generally male authors that saw themselves together its creators and also guardians. This is a quite glaring omission, considering the prestige of other significant African-American writers from the southern such together Richard Wright, a Mississippi native and author that the famous 1940 novel, Native Son.


Richard Wright: Native Son author Richard light was among the notable African-American authors who has actually been arguably overlooked as part of the southern literary tradition.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsRacial consciousness was the prevailing template of the Harlem Renaissance, one African-American cultural movement in the 1920s called for the historically black Harlem neighborhood of brand-new York City.The Renaissance was constructed upon the “New Negro” movement, i m sorry was founded in 1917 by hobtration Harrison and Matthew Kotleski together a reaction to race and also class issues, including calls for political equality and the end of segregation.In several essays consisted of in the 1925 anthology, The brand-new Negro, editor Alain Locke contrasted the “Old Negro” v the “New Negro” through stressing African-American assertiveness and also self-confidence throughout the years following civilization War I and the Great Migration.Seeking to against the increase in racism during the postwar years, black color artists, writers, and musicians occurred unique layouts that tested pervading stereotypes that African-American society as the Harlem Renaissance developed.While black-owned businesses supported the Harlem Renaissance, the movement likewise relied ~ above the patronage of white Americans because that the dissemination of that is works.Key TermsMarcus Garvey: (1887–1940) A Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and also orator that was a staunch proponent that the black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements.New negro Movement: A militant movement, established in in 1916–1917 by hubert Harrison and also Negro organization baseball star Matthew Kotleski, the was linked with the Harlem Renaissance the the 1920s.Alain Locke: (1885–1954) one American writer, philosopher, educator, and patron of the arts.

The Harlem Renaissance to be a social movement that covered the 1920s and also 1930s. The sprang up as part of the “New Negro” movement, a politics initiative started in 1917 and later called after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. Though the Harlem Renaissance was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of brand-new York City, plenty of French-speaking black authors from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were additionally influenced through the Renaissance. The zenit of this “flowering of black literature,” together James Weldon Johnson preferred to call the Harlem Renaissance, was placed in between 1924 and 1929.

New negro Movement

“New Negro” was a term used in African-American discourse, beginning in 1895 and also lasting for the very first three years of the twenty century, come characterize one outspoken advocacy the dignity and a refuse to submit quiet to the practices and laws that Jim Crow gyeongju segregation. Popularized by writer and also philosopher Alain LeRoy Locke, the new Negro principle received its biggest attention approximately 1917 to 1928, as soon as it became far better known as the “Harlem Renaissance.”

For african Americans, civilization War i highlighted the widening gap between U.S. Rhetoric regarding, “the war to do the world safe because that democracy,” and the truth of disenfranchised and exploited black color farmers in the South and the poor and alienated occupants of north slums. In France, black color soldiers skilled the kind of liberty they had never known in the unified States, yet returned to uncover that discrimination versus blacks was simply as energetic as it had actually been prior to the war. Numerous African-American soldiers who dealt with in segregated systems during human being War I, like the Harlem Hellfighters, came home to a country whose citizens frequently did not respect your accomplishments.

In 1916–1917, hobtration Harrison and also Negro league baseball star Matthew Kotleski established the “New Negro” movement, i m sorry energized the African-American community with race- and class-conscious demands for politics equality and an finish to segregation and lynching, and also calls for equipped self-defense as soon as appropriate.

In a 1925 anthology, The brand-new Negro, which prospered out of the 1924 special concern of Survey graphic on Harlem, editor Alain Locke contrasted the “Old Negro” with the “New Negro” by stressing African-American assertiveness and self-confidence throughout the year following civilization War I and also the great Migration. Race pride had currently been part of literary and also political self-expression amongst African-Americans in the nineteenth century. However, it uncovered a brand-new purpose and definition in the journalism, fiction, poetry, music, sculpture, and paintings of many figures associated with the Harlem Renaissance.


Alain Locke: A portrait of Alain LeRoy Locke, leader the the brand-new Negro movement and also inspirational figure of the Harlem Renaissance.

No one far better articulated the hopes and possibilities connected with the idea and ideal that the “New Negro” than the Harvard-trained philosophy professor Alain LeRoy Locke, who later explained himself together the “midwife” to aspiring young black authors of the 1920s. According to Locke, The brand-new Negro, whose publishing by Albert and Charles Boni in December 1925 symbolized the culmination that the an initial stage the the new Negro Renaissance in literature, was assembled, “to document the brand-new Negro culturally and socially—to register the revolutions of the inner and also outer life the the black in America that have so considerably taken ar in the last few years.” Highlighting its global scope, Locke contrasted the new Negro activity with the, “nascent activities of individual expression and also self determination” that were following internationally.

Despite the obstacles of race and also class in the 1920s, a brand-new spirit that hope and pride significant black activity and expression in all areas. The brand-new Negro movement insisted ~ above self-definition, self-expression, and also self-determination, striving because that what Locke called, “spiritual emancipation.” The Harlem Renaissance entrants who arised from this brand-new idealism, regardless of their generational or ideology system orientation in aesthetics or politics, mutual a sense of possibility. The plenty of debates regarding art and also propaganda, representation and identity, assimilation versus militancy, and also parochialism versus globalism enriched perspectives on issues of art, culture, politics, and ideology the have emerged in African-American culture.

Origins of the Renaissance

During the early section of the twentieth century, Harlem came to be home to a growing “Negro” center class. In 1910, a large block follow me 135th Street and also Fifth Avenue to be purchased by various African-American realtors and also a church group. Many much more African Americans come during civilization War I. Due to the war, the migrate of laborers indigenous Europe virtually ceased, while the war initiative resulted in a massive need for unskilled commercial labor. The an excellent Migration lugged hundreds of thousands of African americans from the southern to urban such as Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleveland, and new York. Amongst them were a great number of artist whose influence would involved bear, especially in jazz music.

Despite the raising popularity of negro culture, virulent white racism, regularly by more recent ethnic immigrants, ongoing to impact African-American communities. Race riots and other polite uprisings developed throughout the unified States during the so-called Red Summer of 1919, reflecting economic competition end jobs and also housing in many cities, and tensions end social territories.


The very first stage that the Harlem Renaissance began in the so late 1910s, especially with the 1917 premiere that Three Plays because that a negro Theatre. these plays, created by white playwright Ridgely Torrence, featured African-American gibbs conveying complex human emotions and yearnings. Castle rejected the stereotypes the the blackface and also minstrel-show traditions. James Weldon Johnson in 1917 called the premieres of this plays, “the many important solitary event in the entire background of the negro in the American Theater.”


In 1917 hobtration Harrison, “The father of Harlem Radicalism,” established the Liberty League and also The Voice, the an initial organization and also the first newspaper, respectively, of the “New Negro” movement. Harrison’s organization and newspaper to be political, but additionally emphasized the arts, with his newspaper consisting of “Poetry for the People” and also book-review sections. In 1927, in the Pittsburgh Courier newspaper, Harrison challenged the concept of the renaissance. He argued that the “Negro literary Renaissance” concept overlooked, “the currently of literary and also artistic commodities which had flowed uninterruptedly indigenous Negro writers from 1850 come the present,” and also said that the so-called “renaissance” was mainly a white invention. That is true the W.E.B. Du Bois had actually introduced the notion of “twoness” in his 1903 book, The Souls of black color Folk, which explored a separated awareness that one’s identity that to be a distinctive critique the the social ramifications of racial consciousness. This occupational preempted the Harlem Renaissance, but additionally undoubtedly available some degree of inspiration and also fodder for its writers.

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The functions of the Harlem Renaissance appealed to a large audience and marked a proliferation the African-American social influence, v magazines such as The Crisis, the newspaper of the national Association because that the development of Colored civilization (NAACP), and also Opportunity, the publishing of the nationwide Urban League, both use Harlem Renaissance writers on your staffs, while white-owned publishing houses and magazines additionally supported the movement. Numerous authors began to i have announced novels, magazines, and also newspapers throughout this time. Notable Harlem Renaissance figures contained Locke, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Arna Bontemps, Nella Larson, Wallace Thurman, Countee Cullen, Jessie Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, James Weldon Johnson, Jean Toomer, Alain Locke, and also Eric D. Walrond.