External Reproductive Organs

Penis and Prepuce 

The stallion’s penis consists of 3 parts: (1) the root or bulb, (2) the body or shaft, (the main part), and (3) the glans, the enlarged cost-free end the the penis. As soon as not erect, the dick is 50 cm long and 2.5 to 6 cm in diameter with the distal end 15 to 20 cm totally free in the prepuce. As soon as erect, the cock doubles in length and also thickness and also the glans increases by 3 to 4 times. The prepuce or sheath is a dual invagination that the skin the covers the distal portion of the dick when not erect. Check of the penis and also prepuce is many conveniently done at the moment of washing. Permit the stallion to method the mare in order come be engendered to allow down, in ~ which time the prick extends native the sheath. Practice caution due to the fact that some stallions might be reluctant to be examined and cow kick or kick backwards at the examiner. Be cautious to protect everyone involved. Research the penis and prepuce both manually and also visually. Master the obelisk of the cock just behind the glans. Study the urethral process for lesions and also the linked structures because that debris or other foreign material. The examination continues up the shaft where any kind of injuries, scars or other lesions are noted. V the cock exposed, study the internal and also external part of the prepuce. Generally a little amount of greasy smegma is uncovered at the base of the penis. Any kind of trauma or injury come the prick or prepuce can be very detrimental come the stallion’s capability to covering a mare and could result in long term mental problems. This is specifically true if the stallion is kicked by the mare while attempting to breed her. Trauma can also occur through improper managing of synthetic vaginas.

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The scrotum is an outpouching the skin in the inguinal area the encloses the testes. It has a longitudinal midline wherein the 2 sacs space fused. The scrotum might be check at the moment of washing or after ~ ejaculation, which may be more secure for everyone involved. The stallion’s scrotum is no as pendulous together a bull’s and is organized closer come the abdomen. The scrotum’s skin is soft and also pliable through a greasy texture as result of sebaceous glands. The scrotum is important in thermoregulation of the testicles.

Testicles and Epididymides

The testes space ovoid structures, measure up 8 come 12 cm long by 6 come 7 cm high through 5 centimeter wide. They consist that seminiferous tubules in i beg your pardon spermatogenesis occurs and interstitial tissues of which the Leydig cells create testosterone. The testicles have to be openly movable in ~ the scrotal sac. The epididymides are separated into 3 parts: (1) head; (2) body and also (3) tail. The head that the epididymis is carefully attached come the testicle’s anterior dorsal aspect. The human body of the epididymis continues along the testicle’s back side until it terminates in ~ the rather large tail the the epididymis that is loose attached come the testicle’s tail. The testes and epididymides space palpated with the scrotal wall surface to determine their presence, size, symmetry and also consistency. The normal stallion has actually two testes. Palpation need to reveal that they have actually the exact same consistency v no abnormalities of shape or texture. The ideal testis is generally slightly smaller than the left. Recognize testicular size by measuring scrotal broad of both testicles. Measure up scrotal width utilizing calipers at the allude of greatest width with a nonerect penis. Scrotal broad is positively correlated with daily sperm production and output. Common scrotal widths variety from 9 to 13 cm. Stallions older than 7 year of period tend come have better scrotal widths 보다 younger stallions. Particular medications, specifically androgens, adversely affect testicular size. Cryptorchidism is common in stallions and its genetic manage is not fully understood. The left testicle is the one most commonly retained. Congenital cryptorchid stallions have to not be taken into consideration for breeding.

Internal Reproductive Organs

The ductus deferens is the continuation of the epididymis and runs native the tail the the epididymis v the inguinal canal to the area the the neck of the bladder. The duct broadens near the bladder to kind the ampulla i beg your pardon acts as a sperm warehouse organ.

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Accessory Sex Glands

The vesicular glands, prostate gland and also bulbourethral glands are collectively called the accessory sex glands. Castle all carry out a portion of the seminal fluid, however are not vital for fertility. These glands are typically rectally palpated. The vesicular glands are usually the most an overwhelming to palpate since before teasing castle are basically collapsed. However, after vigorous teasing, the motor enlarge because of the buildup of the gels fraction and are less complicated to palpate. This is why it might be much more desirable come palpate ~ teasing, however on the various other hand, most stallions are much more tractable following ejaculation. So, timing the rectal examination is largely at the examiner’s discretion.