You are watching: How and where is atp made in a eukaryotic cell?
In a eukaryotic bio cell, biochemical activities are compartmentalized in small subcellular compartments contact organelles. ATP, the energy currency of the cell, is made in one organelle called the "mitochondrium" (pl. "mitochondria").
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I published the opinion in preprint ubraintv-jp.com that could be of attention to you(see: https://doi.org/10.7287/ubraintv-jp.com.preprints.27241v1 )I also send a article to you to raise interest around it:Dear Collegue,Henry Tedeschi made an exact measurements on the electric potentials that the inner mitochondrial membrane that confute the Chemiosmotic Theory and in 1979 continual a hard conflict with Hagai Rottemberg the instead safeguarded it. The problem entitled “Is there a far-ranging metabolically dependency membrane potential in mitochondria?” has actually been published by tendency in Biochemical scientific researches <4(8) N182-N185, 1979>, conflict that appears much more than ever present 40 year later, additionally in relationship to the serious conclusions of Tedeschi:“In summary, come our knowledge, over there is no evidence of a metabolically-induced membrane potential in mitochondria in ~ this time. Ignoring these facts have the right to only delay further progress in the field of bioenergetics”.To this conflict I make a strong reference in composing the recently published article:"Chemiosmotic coupling in Oxidative Phosphorylation: the history of a hard experimental initiative hampered by the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle"Authors: Alessandro Morelli, Silvia Ravera, Daniela Calzia and Isabella Panfoli - link: https://doi.org/10.7287/ubraintv-jp.com.preprints.27241v1This is a critically evaluation of the Chemiosmotic Theory, i beg your pardon is a topic central in bioenergetic because that realize a coupling of the conclusive phase of the destruction of nutrient with the synthesis aerobic the ATP, a process called Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS). For much more than fifty years it has actually been embraced that i) the OXPHOS occurs specifically in mitochondria and also ii) this happens according come the Chemiosmotic Theory, i.e. That the proton are collected on the periplasmatic next of the inner mitochondrial membrane and, crossing the membrane from the periplasmic next to procession side, the proton induce a catalytic synthesis of ATP from ADP and also phosphate by method of F1Fo-ATP Synthase. The write-up disputes several points that the Chemiosmotic theory 1) the impossible build-up of protons since this process would develop a local high acidity, incompatible with any procedure of life; 2) free protons in the mitochondria are an extremely few, absolutely poor to support the synthetic of ATP, as Wojciech Bal et al. Show with elementary school calculations in the 2012 PlosOne short article "The final Frontier of pH and also the Undiscovered nation Beyond" (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045832); 3) additionally the internal mitochondrial membrane is permeable to protons as demonstrated through a solid speculative reports, advert in our manuscript.This upgrade of the Chemiosmotic Theory allows us to imply a brand-new theoretical interpretation of OXPHOS procedure that can role in moving districts various from mitochondria such together the plasma membranes, the photoreceptors, the myelin sheath, the platelets wherein the real and also intense synthetic of ATP is not contemplated by the Chemiosmotic Theory.In particular, the visibility of energetic OXPHOS in myelin enabled us come formulate brand-new hypotheses top top the chemical-physical bases that myelined nerve conduction together reported in ours previous article"The Myelin cannot readjust the an easy mechanisms that axonal conduction" - Link: DOI: 10.7287/ubraintv-jp.com.preprints.3409v1)that raised a an excellent interest to it is in ranked amongst the best of 5 most read write-ups of 2017 in neuroscience ar of Preprint ubraintv-jp.com.Given the too much importance and perspectives the the topics covered, the Colleagues room strongly urged to review the contents of this articles and to make their comments by including their feedback come the open section of Preprint ubraintv-jp.com to give rise come a public dispute that until now has not happened.I realize that our hypotheses deserve to raise countless disagreements amongst the scientist, yet I believe that the path of science have to not suffer due to the fact that of resistance, prejudices, foreknowledges and also other insights which have actually made extremely present the Henry Tedeschi"s warning “Ignoring these facts can only delay further progression in the ar of bioenergetics”.Alessandro Morelli