Interactive periodic Table of the Elements, in Pictures and also Words © 2005-2016 Keith Enevoldsen

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Learning Objectives

recognize the group of the different elements. Specify valence electrons. Explain how the variety of valence electrons are associated the arrangement of the main group elements and its ubraintv-jp.comical behavior.

Elements the have similar ubraintv-jp.comical properties are grouped in columns dubbed groups (or families). As well as being numbered, some of these groups have names—for example, alkali metals (the very first column the elements), alkaline planet metals (the 2nd column that elements), halogens (the next-to-last pillar of elements), and also noble gases (the last tower of elements). In and atomic , the main group is the group of facets whose lightest members are represented by , , , , , , , and also as arranged in the the the elements. The key group has the elements (except , which is sometimes not included) in teams 1 and also 2, and groups 13 come 18. Main-group elements (with some of the lighter ) space the most abundant aspects on , in the , and in the . They room sometimes likewise called the representative elements. In larger nomenclature the main-group facets are teams IA and also IIA, and groups IIIB come 0 (CAS groups IIIA to VIIIA). Group 12 is labelled as team IIB in both systems. Group 3 is labelled as group IIIA in the older nomenclature (CAS team IIIB).

Each row of elements on the regular table is referred to as a period. Durations have various lengths; the an initial period has actually only 2 elements (hydrogen and helium), when the 2nd and third periods have 8 facets each. The fourth and fifth periods have 18 facets each, and later periods are so long that a segment from each is removed and also placed in ~ the key body of the table.

One means to categorize the facets of the regular table is presented in number (PageIndex1). The an initial two columns on the left and also the last 6 columns ~ above the right as mentioned earlier are the main team elements. The ten-column block in between these columns includes the transition metals. The two rows beneath the key body the the routine table save the inner transition metals. The elements in these 2 rows are additionally referred come as, respectively, the lanthanide metals and the actinide metals.


Example (PageIndex2)

Based top top its place in the routine table, divide each element below together metal, a nonmetal, or a metalloid.

Se Mg Ge


In figure (PageIndex1), selenium lies over and to the appropriate of the diagonal line line marking the boundary between metals and nonmetals, so it have to be a nonmetal. Magnesium lies come the left that the diagonal line noting the boundary between metals and nonmetals, for this reason it have to be a metal. Germanium lies within the diagonal line line noting the boundary in between metals and also nonmetals, so it must be a metalloid.

Exercise (PageIndex2)

Based on its place in the periodic table, carry out you mean indium to it is in a nonmetal, a metal, or a metalloid?

Answer Indium is a metal.

Example (PageIndex3): category of Elements

Classify each facet as metal, non metal, shift metal or inner shift metal.

Li Ar to be Fe


Lithium is a metal. Argon is a non metal Americium is one inner transition metal iron is a change metal.

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Valence electrons space the outer-shell electron of one atom. These are electrons that deserve to participate in the formation of a ubraintv-jp.comical bond. Aspects that exhibit similar ubraintv-jp.comistry show up in upright columns called groups (numbered 1–18 native left to right). The 7 horizontal rows are dubbed periods. Several of the groups have widely-used common names, consisting of the alkali metals (Group 1) and also the alkaline earth metals (Group 2) on the far left, and also the halogens (Group 17) and also the noble gases (Group 18) on the far right. Critical grouping of elements in the regular table are the main group elements, the transition metals, and the inner shift metals (the lanthanides, and also the actinides). The elements can be generally divided right into metals, nonmetals, and also semi metals. Semi metals exhibit properties intermediate between those that metals and also nonmetals. Metals are located on the left that the periodic table, and also nonmetals are located on the upper right. They room separated through a diagonal band of semi metals. Steels are lustrous, great conductors the electricity, and readily shaped (they are ductile and also malleable). Solid nonmetals are generally brittle and poor electric conductors.