Bruce Tuckman"s 1965 Team-Development Model

Background Information

Dr Bruce Tuckman published his "Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing" version in 1965. The later added a 5th stage, Adjourning, in the 1970s.

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The "Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing" theory is an elegant and helpful explanation that team development and behaviour. Similarities have the right to be checked out with other models, such as Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum and also especially v Hersey and also Blanchard"s Situational Leadership® model, developed around the same time. Both of these theories and how lock overlap with Tuckman"s design will be briefly outlined below.

Why is Tuckman"s version useful?

Tuckman"s model describes that together the team develops maturity and also ability, relationships establish, and also the leader transforms leadership style. Beginning through a directing style, relocating through coaching, climate participating and also finishing through delegation, in ~ which point they are nearly detached. In ~ this point, the team may develop a successor leader and the ahead leader can move top top to build a new team.

This an easy overview the the Tuckman "Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing" design offers a simple means to understand how groups develop.Tuckman"s model is especially advantageous in training people on team work, thus permitting groups to fulfil their complete potential.

Related Resources and also Theories

What space the 4 Stages that Team Development?

The development is:

forming Storming Norming Performing

listed below the attributes of every phase will be outlined in detail.

stage 1: developing

This stage is divide by:

High dependency on the leader because that guidance and also direction.Little commitment on team goals other 보다 those obtained from the leader.Individual roles and also responsibilities are unclear.The leader must be ready to answer many questions about the team"s purpose, objectives and external relationships. Processes are often ignored.Members check the tolerance of system and leader.The leader directs (similar to Situational Leadership® "Telling" mode).

phase 2: Storming

This stage is classified by:

A lack of covenant when it involves making team decisions. Team members attempt to create themselves and also their place in relation to various other team members and the leader, who might receive difficulties from team members.Clarity that the team"s function increases but many uncertainties persist.Cliques and factions form. This may lead to power struggles. The team demands to emphasis on its objectives to avoid becoming distracted by relationships and emotional issues.Compromises might be required to permit progress.The leader coaches (similar to Situational Leadership® "Selling" mode).

phase 3: Norming

This phase is divide by:

Agreement and consensus greatly forming amongst the team, who respond fine to facilitation through the leader.Roles and responsibilities space clear and also accepted.Big decisions are made by group agreement. Smaller decisions may be delegated to people or small teams in ~ the group.Commitment and also unity space strong. The team may interact in fun and also social activities.The team discusses and also develops that processes and also working style.There is basic respect because that the leader and also leadership obligations are now shared amongst the team.The leader facilitates and enables (similar to the Situational Leadership® "Participating" mode).

phase 4: Performing

This phase is classified by:

The team"s raised strategic awareness. It is now clear why the team is law what that is doing.The shared vision the the team. It is currently independent and does not need interference or participation from the leader.A focus on over-achieving goals and also the team makes most of the decisions against criteria agreed v the leader. The team has a high level of autonomy.Disagreements. However, lock are currently resolved within the team positively, and necessary alters to processes and structure are made through the team.The team deserve to work towards achieving the goal and also to resolve relationship, style and procedure issues along the way.Team members feather after each other.The team request delegated tasks and projects from the leader.The team not needing to be instructed or assisted. Team members might ask for aid from the leader with an individual and interpersonal development.The leader delegating and also overseeing (similar come the Situational Leadership® "Delegating" mode).

Tuckman"s version of Team development Diagram

This a diagram of Tuckman"s 4 stages of team development. Listed below is an synopsis of the 5th stage, which Tuckman only included later after ~ refining his theory.


Stage 5: Adjourning

Bruce Tuckman refined his theory in 1975 and added a 5th stage come the "Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing" model: Adjourning. This is also referred to together Deforming and Mourning.

Adjourning is arguably more of one adjunct to the initial four-stage model rather 보다 an expansion - it see the team from a perspective past the purpose of the first four stages.

The Adjourning step is certainly very relevant to the human being in the group and also their well-being, however not come the key task that managing and developing a team, which is more central to the original four stages.

Tuckman"s fifth stage, Adjourning, is the separation of the group, once the job is completed successfully and also its objective fulfilled.

From an organisational perspective, acknowledgment of and also sensitivity to people"s vulnerabilities in Tuckman"s fifth stage is helpful. This is particularly if members the the team have been very closely bonded and also feel a sense of insecurity or threat from this change.

Hersey and also Blanchard"s Situational Leadership®

The standard Situational Leadership® model of management and also leadership style likewise illustrates the ideal advancement of a team indigenous immaturity (stage 1) v to maturity (stage 4).

According come this model, the leadership format progressively creates from reasonably detached task-directing (1), through the much more managerially-involved stages of explanation (2) and also participation (3), come the last stage of relatively detached delegation (4), in ~ which time ideally the team is largely self-managing, and contains at the very least one potential management/leadership successor.

The target of the leader or manager is, therefore, to construct the team through the four stages, and also then to progress on to another role.

The model likewise illustrates four main leadership and management styles, i m sorry a great leader deserve to switch between, depending on the case (i.e., the team"s maturity relating come a specific task, task or challenge).

Background and also Resources

use of product relating come Situational Leadership® and/or Situational management II® calls for licence and agreement from the corresponding companies.

Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuous

The Tannenbaum and also Schmidt Continuum additionally correlates or overlaps through the models over in the sense that management format tends come offer more freedom together the group matures.

The diagonal line loosely equals the dotted line on the other two models. as the team matures and also becomes much more self-sufficient and also self-directing, therefore the manager"s format should react accordingly, ideally becoming an ext detached, an ext delegating, encouraging and enabling the team to operation itself, and for a follower to emerge.


check out the Tannenbaum and also Schmidtpage for much more detailed notes around this model.

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Other Resources appropriate to Team Development

See additionally


Situational Leadership® is a trademark the the center for management Studies. Situational leadership II® is a trademark that The Ken Blanchard Companies. Usage of material relating to Situational Leadership® and/or Situational leadership II® requires licence and also agreement from the particular companies.

© Bruce Tuckman 1965 original "Forming-storming-norming-performing" concept; Alan Chapman 2001-2013 review and code.

Thanks come S Doran because that the suggestion. And thanks also C Lloyd for stating the error in these diagrams, duly corrected Aug 2008 - storming and norming were inverted.