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You are watching: Does mitosis make haploid or diploid cells

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Hello again Shikha,Both mitosis and also meiosis are varieties of cell department that involve the segregation of chromosomes right into daughter cells. However, over there are plenty of important differences between these two cellular processes.Mitosis is thought about an “equational” kind of cell division — it wake up in cell that perform not produce gametes (e.g., somatic cells). Throughout mitosis, a cabinet divides when to produce two daughter cell with hereditary material the same to the of the original parent cell and also to every other. Both haploid and also diploid cells can undergo mitosis. Once a haploid cell undergoes mitosis, that produces two genetically identical haploid daughter cells; once a diploid cell undergoes mitosis, it produces 2 genetically identical diploid daughter cells. As we stated in our previous answer, mitosis is separated into 5 phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and also cytokinesis.In contrast, meiosis is taken into consideration a “reductional” form of cell division that occurs in diploid germ cells. Throughout meiosis, a diploid germ cabinet undergoes two cell divisions to create four haploid gamete cells (e.g., egg or sperm cells), which room genetically distinct from the initial parent cell and also contain fifty percent as plenty of chromosomes. The two meiotic departments are conveniently described as meiosis I and also meiosis II, and they room subdivided divided into various phases. Meiosis I consists of prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, and interkinesis; meiosis II consists of prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II, and cytokinesis.The fast answer come your question is that meiosis, v its 2 divisions, requires much more energy 보다 mitosis. Now, let’s briefly focus on few of the an essential differences in between mitosis and meiosis. Together we mentioned, mitosis is one equational form of cabinet division, and also meiosis is a reductional kind of cell division. Meiosis i is the reductional department step throughout which the number of chromosomes is lessened by half, and also meiosis II is an equational department step the resembles mitosis. Throughout prophase i of meiosis I, homologous chromosomes (i.e., the two copies of each chromosome inherited from every parent) pair v each other and recombine by cross over, leading to brand-new combinations that alleles. Meiosis to produce haploid cell with new allele combinations various from those of either parent many thanks in large part come the occasions that occur throughout meiosis I.We’ve noted a collection of links listed below to short articles that carry out an in-depth view of the steps connected in mitosis and also meiosis. Us encourage friend to focus in specific on the occasions that occur throughout prophase I. Girlfriend might likewise be interested to check out that mistakes developing during mitosis and also meiosis are linked to cancer and also chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., trisomy 21) in humans, respectively.To learn an ext about mitosis, follow this links:http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/course-content/essentials-of-genetics-8/104http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/course-content/essentials-of-genetics-8/105http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/mitosis-and-nbsp-cell-division-205http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/chromosome-segregation-in-mitosis-the-role-of-242http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/mitosis-meiosis-and-inheritance-476http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/content/mitosis-a-history-of-division-12702For an ext information around the coordinated events occurring during meiosis, check out the following links:http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/course-content/essentials-of-genetics-8/106http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/DNA-Is-Constantly-Changing-through-the-Process-6524876http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/Meiosis-Genetic-Recombination-and-Sexual-Reproduction-210http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/content/Meiosis-35062http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/Replication-and-Distribution-of-DNA-during-Meiosis-6524853http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/Mitosis-Meiosis-and-Inheritance-476Finally, here are some links to animations showing the occasions that occur throughout mitosis and meiosis:http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/content/meiosis-6656731http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/content/mitosis-6656772http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120074/bio17.swf
when a cabinet is dividing the DNA is in unwind situation and it is replicating then at that time how other fuctions of cell prefer metabolism is lugged out?

Hello Shikha,Before we answer your question, let’s review the steps complied with by cells as soon as they duplicate your DNA and divide, recognized as the cell department cycle or cabinet cycle. There are 4 stages in the eukaroytic cell cycle: gap 1 (G1), DNA synthetic (S), void 2 (G2), and also Mitosis (M). Many cells spend the bulk of their time in interphase, which consists of the G1, S, and G2 phases. Throughout interphase, a cell grows, duplicates the chromosomal DNA, and also prepares come divide. As its name suggests, DNA replication (i.e., synthesis) occurs during the S phase. During mitosis, a cabinet divides and splits that entire contents (including its chromosomes) between two daughter cells.As you can imagine, the cabinet cycle is a tightly regulation process. There room checkpoints transparent the cell cycle come ensure that everything is in order in ~ the end of each stage prior to the cell proceeds to the following stage. Together you might imagine, a fail to properly complete one phase of the cabinet cycle prior to jumping into the next could have drastic consequences for a cell!Although mitosis occupies just a small fraction of the entire cell cycle, the is really important stage since it entails attaching the chromosomes to the mitotic spindle and precisely distributing one copy that each and every chromosome into the two resulting daughter cells. Mitosis have the right to be further subdivided into five phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and also cytokinesis. If any kind of of the proteins involved in mitosis malfunction, or if the chromosomes do not segregate correctly, the an outcome could be failed cell division or, in ~ the various other extreme, uncontrolled cell growth (which deserve to lead come cancer!).As us mentioned, DNA replication occurs throughout the S step of the cell cycle, prior to the cell enters the M phase and divides. You might be surprised to review that although the chromosomal DNA have to be unwound throughout S step to permit access by the DNA replication machinery, it becomes extremely condensed and also compacted together cells get in mitosis. Indeed, mitotic chromosomes are often hundreds come thousands times much more condensed 보다 interphase chromatin. As a result, separation, personal, instance interphase chromosomes are regularly not clearly shows whereas mitotic chromosomes are clearly observed under the microscope. Why are chromosomes condensed during mitosis? Chromosome condensation dram a vital role in the segregation of chromosomes in between two daughter cells once a cabinet divides.Now, let’s go back to your certain question. You’d choose to understand just how cell metabolism occurs once DNA is unwound throughout S phase. Indeed, DNA replication frequently does not happen at the same time as RNA transcription. So, how do cells produce the RNA they need to make metabolic proteins once DNA replication is happening? The rapid answer is that cells often develop a to make reservation of metabolic enzymes capable of supporting metabolism also when the chromosomal DNA is gift replicated. Furthermore, the DNA is unwound at replication forks for just a short moment in time before a safety daughter strand of DNA is synthesized. Thus, the transcription of a provided gene will only experience a short-term pause during DNA replication, which must not negatively affect the cell’s metabolic functions. As you have the right to see, cell division is closely regulated so the cells can maintain ideal levels that metabolic activity while accurately segregating your DNA when they divide!Follow these links to learn much more about the cell division cycle, chromosome condensation, and also DNA replication, follow this links:http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/definition/mitosis-cell-division-47http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/mitosis-and-nbsp-cell-division-205http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/course-content/essentials-of-genetics-8/105http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=mboc4∂=A3169http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/Major-Molecular-Events-of-DNA-Replication-413http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/DNA-Packaging-Nucleosomes-and-Chromatin-310
transcription take ar on solitary stranded DNA.but when is that available?Do warrior happen throughout DNA replication?


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Welcome ago Sreeram, The timing of warrior depends greatly on the gene. Some genes that encode housekeeping proteins are transcribed all the time; various other genes room transcribed just in an answer to a signal indigenous the cell’s environment. As you likely know, RNA warrior is initiated from promoter facets that target transcription determinants to the DNA template. RNA warrior is linked with a transcription bubble, which is composed of an unwound layout DNA the is obtainable to RNA polymerases and transcription factors.The brief answer come your 2nd question is no, transcription typically does not happen at the exact same time as DNA replication. In eukaryotic bio cells, DNA replication occurs during the S-phase of the cabinet cycle. During S-phase, RNA transcription and protein translation are largely restricted to the production of histone mRNAs and proteins, thereby decreasing the likelihood that DNA polymerase will encounter RNA polymerase. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA warrior occurs primarily during the G1 and also G2 phases of the eukaryotic bio cell cycle, when DNA polymerase is inactive.You’re more than likely wondering why DNA replication is often disconnected native RNA transcription, both in time and space. Is this just a method to prevent a collision in between DNA polymerase and also RNA polymerase? Or have actually cells advanced an efficient mechanism to resolve this molecular confrontation? researchers have proactively sought answers to these questions.Olavarietta et al. Emerged a bacterial device that offered a plasmid to advice the aftermath of this chance encounter. They uncovered that a collision in between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase triggered deleterious effects on the structure of the DNA template, consisting of the formation of knots behind the replication fork. Ultimately, the cells displayed incomplete replication of the plasmid and also defective distribution of the plasmid come the daughter cells during mitosis. In various other words, the cells might not recover from the collision between DNA polymerase and also the transcription bubble. Together it turns out, researchers have uncovered very tiny evidence the this form of encounter wake up in ubraintv-jp.com, i beg your pardon is more than likely the an outcome of the deleterious, and likely lethal, outcome.But there space some cases when DNA polymerase is known to pause at selected sites wherein RNA warrior may occur simultaneously. This is recognized as replication fork pausing, and it occurs at evolutionarily conserved sites (called replication fork stop sites) scattered transparent prokaryotic and also eukaryotic genomes. A DNA replication fork pause site is comparable to a red irradiate at an intersection that tells DNA polymerase come wait the turn. And it turns out this sites are likewise important because that the regulation that RNA warrior termination. They space often found in the vicinity of highly transcribed regions, consisting of tRNA genes. Researcher have additionally uncovered an association in between replication fork pause sites and also genetic recombination.As you have the right to see, it appears that ubraintv-jp.com has come up with a system to protect against head-on collisions in between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase transcription bubbles. However, researchers have not yet established the moving mechanic hired to entangle the mess and also fix the contents when, and also if, castle collide.To learn more about RNA transcription check out the following links:http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/The-Information-in-DNA-Is-Decoded-by-6524808http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/DNA-Transcription-426Follow these web links to learn more about gene regulation and also when warrior occurs:http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/gene-expression-and-regulation-topic-room-28455http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/regulation-of-transcription-and-gene-expression-in-1086For an ext in-depth reading about DNA replication, examine out this links:http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/Cells-Can-Replicate-Their-DNA-Precisely-6524830http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/topicpage/Major-Molecular-Events-of-DNA-Replication-413http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/scitable/nated/article?action=showContentInPopup&contentPK=409To read an ext about replication fork stop sites, watch the following article:http://www.ubraintv-jp.com/embor/journal/v8/n4/full/7400940.html