Learning Objectives

Define, solid, liquid, and also gas.Explain differences amongst these three phases that matter.

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Why is the state the water various in every picture?

Why is the state of water different in every picture?

Water can take many forms. At short temperatures (below 0°C), the is a solid. Once at “normal” temperature (between 0°C and 100°C), that is a liquid. While in ~ temperatures over 100°C, water is a gas (steam).

The state the water is in depends upon the temperature. Every state (solid, liquid, and gas) has its very own unique set of physics properties.

Matter and Its States

Matter frequently exists in one of three states: solid , liquid , or gas . The state a given substance exhibits is additionally a physics property. Part substances exist together gases in ~ room temperature (oxygen and also carbon dioxide), while others, like water and mercury metal, exist as liquids. Most steels exist as solids in ~ room temperature. Every substances deserve to exist in any kind of of these three states. In addition to present in one of the 3 states, matter can also undergo a change that state. A readjust of state occurs when matter is convert from one state to one more state for instance when a fluid is converted to a gas or a hard is converted to a liquid.

Note: Technically speak a fourth state of matter referred to as plasma exists, but it does not naturally happen on earth, for this reason we will certainly omit the from our examine here.


Liquids have the complying with characteristics:

no definite shape (takes the shape of that container)has identify volumeparticles are complimentary to relocate over every other, yet are still attracted to each other

A acquainted liquid is mercury metal. Mercury is one anomaly. It is the only steel we understand of the is liquid at room temperature. Mercury also has an capability to rod to chin (surface tension) – a property all liquids exhibit. Mercury has actually a fairly high surface ar tension, which makes it an extremely unique. Right here you view mercury in its typical liquid form.

Figure 2.6


If us were to warmth liquid mercury to its boiling point of 357°C, and under the right pressure conditions, us would an alert all particles in the fluid state get in the gas state.


Gases have the following characteristics:

no definite shape (takes the form of that container)no identify volumeparticles move in random activity with tiny or no attraction to each otherhighly compressibleSolid

Solids are identified by the following characteristics:

definite form (rigid)definite volumeparticles vibrate around fixed axes

If we were come cool liquid mercury come its freezing allude of -39°C, and under the right pressure conditions, we would an alert all of the fluid particles would enter the hard state.

The video below reflects this process.

As you can see in the video, mercury can be solidified as soon as its temperature is brought to its freezing point. However, when returned come room temperature conditions, mercury does no exist in hard state for long, and also returns earlier to its much more common fluid form.

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Three says of issue exist – solid, liquid, and also gas.Solids have actually a definite shape and volume.Liquids have actually a identify volume, yet take the shape of the container.Gases have actually no definite shape or volume.



Use the net site to answer the following questions:


Which product is a gas in ~ room temperature (25°C)?Which product is a solid in ~ room temperature?Which material is a fluid at room temperature?What happens to the movement of the particles as you rise the temperature?What happens to the motion of the particles as you to decrease the temperature?



How countless states of matter are there?What is a solid?What is a liquid?What is a gas?