L> chemistry BondsChemical Bonding

chemistry compounds are formed by the authorized of 2 or an ext atoms. A steady compound occurs as soon as the total energy that the mix has lower energy than the be separated atoms. The bound state indicates a net attractive force in between the atom ... A chemistry bond. The two extreme situations of chemistry bonds are:

Covalent bond: link in i m sorry one or an ext pairs of electron are common by two atoms.

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Ionic bond: link in i m sorry one or an ext electrons native one atom room removed and also attached to another atom, causing positive and negative ions which entice each other.

Other species of bonds include metallic bonds and hydrogen bonding. The attractive forces in between molecules in a liquid can be defined as van der Waals bonds.

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Sodium chlorideIonic
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Hydrogen moleculeCovalent
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Go BackCovalent Bonds

Covalent chemical bonds involve the share of a pair the valence electrons by two atoms, in contrast to the move of electron in ionic bonds. Such bonds result in stable molecules if they share electrons in together a method as to produce a noble gas configuration for every atom.

Hydrogen gas creates the simplest covalent shortcut in the diatomic hydrogen molecule. The halogens such together chlorine likewise exist together diatomic gases by developing covalent bonds. The nitrogen and oxygen which makes up the mass of the atmosphere also exhibits covalent bonding in creating diatomic molecules.

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Covalent bonding have the right to be visualized with the assist of Lewis diagrams.
Comparison that ionic and also covalent materials.
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Go BackPolar Covalent Bonds

Covalent bond in i beg your pardon the sharing of the electron pair is unequal, with the electrons spending much more time roughly the an ext nonmetallic atom, are dubbed polar covalent bonds. In such a bond there is a charge separation v one atom gift slightly more positive and also the other much more negative, i.e., the bond will develop a dipole moment. The ability of an atom to lure electrons in the presense of one more atom is a measurable property called electronegativity.

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Go BackIonic Bonds

In chemical bonds, atoms can either transfer or share their valence electrons. In the extreme case where one or an ext atoms shed electrons and other atoms acquire them in stimulate to develop a noble gas electron configuration, the link is called an ionic bond.

Typical that ionic bonds room those in the alkali halides such as sodium chloride, NaCl.

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Ionic bonding can be visualized through the assist of Lewis diagrams.
Comparison the ionic and covalent materials.
Energy contribute to ionic bonds
Table the ionic diatomic bonds
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Go BackMetallic Bonds

The properties of metals suggest that their atoms possess strong bonds, yet the lull of conduction that heat and electricity suggest that electrons deserve to move easily in every directions in a metal. The basic observations give rise to a picture of "positive ion in a sea of electrons" to explain metallic bonding. Together bonds room neither ionic no one covalent since the participating electrons room not localized on the atoms.

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Go BackMetal Properties

The basic properties of metals include malleability and also ductility and most are strong and durable. Lock are good conductors of heat and also electricity. Your strength shows that the atom are daunting to separate, however malleability and ductility suggest that the atoms are relatively easy to relocate in assorted directions. The electric conductivity says that that is simple to move electrons in any direction in these materials. The heat conductivity also involves the activity of electrons. Every one of these properties indicate the nature of the metallic bonds in between atoms.

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Go BackHydrogen Bonding

Hydrogen bonding differs from other offers of the word "bond" since it is a pressure of attraction in between a hydrogen atom in one molecule and a little atom the high electronegativity in another molecule. That is, the is one intermolecular force, not an intramolecular pressure as in the typical use of words bond. As such, that is classified as a type of van der Waals bonding, unique from ionic or covalent bonding.

When hydrogen atoms are joined in a polar covalent bond with a small atom the high electronegativity such as O, F or N, the partial positive charge top top the hydrogen is very concentrated since of its small size. If the hydrogen is close to an additional oxygen, fluorine or nitrogen in an additional molecule, then there is a pressure of attraction termed a dipole-dipole interaction. This attraction or "hydrogen bond" have the right to have around 5% to 10% of the strength of a covalent bond.

Hydrogen bonding has a really important impact on the properties of water and ice. Hydrogen bonding is also very important in proteins and nucleic acids and also therefore in life processes. The "unzipping" the DNA is a breaking of hydrogen binding which assist hold the 2 strands that the double helix together.