The Atom and Electromagnetic Radiation

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Fundamental Subatomic Particles Electromagnetic Radiation
Light and Other creates of Electromagnetic Radiation

Particle Symbol Charge Mass
electron e- -1 0.0005486 amu
proton p+ +1 1.007276 amu
neutron no 0 1.008665 amu

The variety of protons, neutrons, and electrons in one atom deserve to be determined from a collection of straightforward rules.

The variety of protons in the cell core of the atom is same to the atom number (Z). The number of electrons in a neutral atom is same to the number of protons. The mass variety of the atom (M) is equal to the amount of the variety of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The number of neutrons is equal to the difference in between the mass number of the atom (M) and the atomic number (Z).

Examples: Let"s identify the variety of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the adhering to isotopes.

12C 13C 14C 14N

The various isotopes of an facet are determined by composing the mass variety of the atom in the upper left edge of the symbol for the element. 12C, 13C, and 14C room isotopes the carbon (Z = 6) and therefore contain 6 protons. If the atoms room neutral, they likewise must contain six electrons. The just difference in between these isotopes is the variety of neutrons in the nucleus.

12C: 6 electrons, 6 protons, and 6 neutrons

13C: 6 electrons, 6 protons, and also 7 neutrons

14C: 6 electrons, 6 protons, and 8 neutrons

Practice trouble 1:

Calculate the number of electrons in the Cl- and also Fe3+ ions.

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Electromagnetic Radiation

Much that what is known about the framework of the electron in an atom has been acquired by researching the interaction in between matter and also different develops of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation has actually some the the properties of both a particle and a wave.

Particles have a identify mass and also they occupy space. Waves have actually no mass and yet they lug energy together they travel v space. In addition to their capability to carry energy, tide have 4 other characteristics properties: speed, frequency, wavelength, and also amplitude. The frequency (v) is the number of waves (or cycles) per unit that time. The frequency that a tide is report in units of cycles per second (s-1) or hertz (Hz).

The idealized illustration of a tide in the figure listed below illustrates the definitions of amplitude and also wavelength. The wavelength (l) is the smallest distance in between repeating point out on the wave. The amplitude the the wave is the distance between the highest possible (or lowest) allude on the wave and also the facility of gravity of the wave.


If we measure the frequency (v) that a wave in cycles per 2nd and the wavelength (l) in meters, the product of these 2 numbers has actually the systems of meters every second. The product of the frequency (v) time the wavelength (l) the a wave is therefore the speed (s) at which the tide travels v space.

vl = s

Practice problem 2:

What is the speed of a tide that has a wavelength that 1 meter and a frequency the 60 cycles every second?

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Practice trouble 3:

Orchestras in the United says tune their tools to an "A" that has actually a frequency of 440 cycles every second, or 440 Hz. If the rate of sound is 1116 feet per second, what is the wavelength that this note?

Click below to inspect your answer come Practice trouble 3

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See more: What Is The Color Of The Stars With The Highest Surface Temperature ?

Light and also Other creates of Electromagnetic Radiation

Light is a wave v both electric and also magnetic components. It is because of this a kind of electromagnetic radiation.

Visible light contains the narrow band that frequencies and wavelengths in the part of the electro-magnetic spectrum that our eyes can detect. It has radiation with wavelengths between around 400 nm (violet) and also 700 nm (red). Since it is a wave, light is bent when it beginning a glass prism. Once white light is focused on a prism, the irradiate rays of various wavelengths are bent through differing quantities and the irradiate is transformed into a spectrum of colors. Beginning from the next of the spectrum whereby the light is bending by the smallest angle, the colors space red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and also violet.

As we can see indigenous the complying with diagram, the energy carried by light increases as we go native red to blue across the visible spectrum.


Because the wavelength the electromagnetic radiation deserve to be as long as 40 m or as quick as 10-5 nm, the visible spectrum is only a small part of the total variety of electromagnetic radiation.


The electromagnetic spectrum includes radio and also TV waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, g-rays, and cosmic rays, as presented in the figure above. These different forms the radiation all travel at the rate of irradiate (c). They differ, however, in your frequencies and also wavelengths. The product of the frequency times the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is always equal to the rate of light.

vl = c

As a result, electromagnetic radiation that has a lengthy wavelength has a short frequency, and radiation through a high frequency has actually a brief wavelength.

Practice trouble 4:

Calculate the frequency the red irradiate that has actually a wavelength the 700.0 nm if the speed of irradiate is 2.998 x 108 m/s.